Ideal role for Ayran women in Germany
domesticity and raise kids according to Nazi ideals-> have babies
Charactersitcis of European Art in the 1920s
Surrealism/ Art Deco !!
Results of the purges in the USSR
invovled a large scale purge of the Communist Party and government officals, repression of peasants, Red Army leadership, and the persecution of unaffected persons, characterized by widespread polticial surveillance, widespread suspicion of "saboteurs" imprisonment and arbitrary executions. Rapid change from landed aristocracy to modern 20th century times.
Attitudes of the Cezech dissidents in 1968
Red Square demonstration in 1968, protested the invasion of Czech by Soviet Union, crushing the Prague Spring
Effects of the Great Depression
unemployment, distrust of the government, a waste of machinery, people wanted a self suffiencet government, economic nationalism, abandoned the gold standard, money had no value
Soviet Space Successes
Sputnik, asserted dominance, they were the first in space, a wake up call for U.S. to catch up, instituted emphasis on math and science in schools, Kennedy said we would get a man on the moon in the next ten years (we did!)
Provisions of the Weimar Constitution-Enabling Act
Enabling Act- demoratic parliamentary Republic, Enabling act allowed Reich government to pass legislation and centralized power to the Reich and away from the individual states.
Results of the Marshall Plan
the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet communism helped rebuild Europe and laid groundwork for the formation of EU
Capitalism and the NEP
was an economic policy proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism" The NEP allowed small animal businesses or smoke shops, for instance, to reopen for private profit while the state contintued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. It was a response to the fact that War Communism (during the civil war) had failed and create a famine that killed 4-5 million people.
Reasons for Appeasement
an agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. France and UK wanted to avoid war at all costs and Hitler took advantage of this and saw how far he could push Germany's boundaries. Technically this incident followed the policy of national self-determination, which is why France and the UK let it go so easily.
Creation of the Duma in 1905
A Form of Russian government institution, that was formed during the reign of the last Tsar, Nicholas II, made because of problems with revolution. The Duma had little actual power (no control over the budget, foreign policy, etc) It was disbanded multiple times because of its disagreements with the tsar
Relationship between movement and science in WWII
atom bomb/ nuclear weaponry, this combined with sets of allies (ex. Cuban missle crisis- who will make the first move, USSR backing Cuba?) More weapons, less likely it is that anything will happen (bc retaliation is inevitable)
Goals of the EEC
was an international organization created with a view to bring about economic integration (including a common market) among its six orginal members - Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
Peace, Bread and Land, All Power to the Soviets
Reasons for the French occupation of the Ruhr
France and Belgium occupied part of German Weimar Republic because they failed to pay reparations from WWI
Soviet dependent regimes by 1948
Albania, Yugoslavia, Poland, East Germany, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria
Women in the work force in WWI
Radium Girls, worked in factories to replace men, many of them go seriously injured or died but worked because they weren't really allowed to before
Areas of study of a social historian
The study of ordinary people
Political and Social values of the Vichy government
government of France which collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944, during the Second World War, aided in Nazi regime's goal of Final Solution, actively opposed Allies.
Objectives of the Kellogg-Briand pact
The Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed by Germany, France, and the USA in August 1928. The Kellogg-Briand Pact is an internaional agreement in which states promised not to use war to solve their foreign problems. PEACE. It also formally recognized the border between France and Germany
EEC and economic integration
The European economic community wanted to unify the eoncomies and make it more peaceful
Effect of inflation in 1923
inflation of the Weimar Republic in Germany
Policies of Totalitarian States
a system of government where the government controls all aspects of private and personal life. Keep power through widespread use of terror and propaganda
Factors in German military success in 1939-40
Blitzrieg warfare and the use of tanks made German attacks extremely effective. Also helped that Germany was far ahead in terms of military preparation than the other nations
Nature of existentialism
philosophy comes from the individuals experience, moral thinking and scientific truth are insufficient to grasp the human experience
Soviet social structures
the universe of obligation reversed; state now the most important obligation
Aim of the Truman Doctrine
US would support Greece and Turkey with economic and milita4ry aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere
Concessions at Munich in 1938
led Hitler to believe he could use even more aggressive tactics in expanding the Third Reich
Measures coming out of Yalta Potsdam
Stalin promises to hold free elections in E. Europe and enter the Pacific war three months after German surrender in exhange for territorial expansion. All nations agreed on the creation of the UN; denazification, disarment, and demilitarization of Germany Reparations from Germany (sort of). Other Axis powers (Italy, Romaniam, Bulgaria, Hungary) agreed to territorial adjestments and reparations
eliminating the cult of personality, Stalinist political system and the Gulag labour-camp system created by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (Khrushchev) the thaw
Fascism and corporatism
the government worked with labor and corporations to plan the nation economically.
National Socialist Ideology
National Socialism (common short form Nazism, German: Nationalsozialismus) was the ideology practiced by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, derivatives of it in other countries. It is a unique variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism
Weakness of the 4th Republic in France
political instability, uncertainty about how to handle Vichy past, but ultimately its attempt to maintain its colonial empire led to its destruction.
Reasons for the Bolshevik victory in the Civil War
The Soviets were able to unite under Trotsky's Red Army, while all the opposition forces (the reactionary Right, the Constitutional Democrats, etc) were unable to unite against the Bolsheviks. Furthermore, the Bolsheviks appealed to the peasant masses and so gained the support of the people of the Russian.
Economic policies 1929-1936
Rise of economic nationalism. In response to Britain abandoning the gold standard, all other nations did. Depression in the US decreased international trade drastically. Nations implemented a series of protective measures, including tariffs, reneging on the free trade liberalism of the early 20th century. Britain followed a policy of retrenchment, which limited the "dole," ie benefits to workers, and focused on loans to industry and economic nationalism.
Lenin's New Economic Policy, called "state capitalism." Allowed certain small, private ventures to reopen for private profit while the state still controlled banks, foreign trade, large industries etc. Came into effect 1921, ended 1928 with the Five Year Plan.
League vs. UN
The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.
mainly concerned with territories in the Ottoman Empire and Germany post WWI and how they'll be transferred.
Major Thinkers of the 20th Century
Inflation in Germany
In the 1920s, German workers were provided benefits merely by printing money, which completely disrupted the rest of the economy because of the rampant inflation it caused.
Religious trends 1870-1914
Adenauer, De Gasperi, Schuman
Adenauer is first leader of Christian Democratic Union, wanted to restore Germany's position of international respect. De Gasperi was long-lasting ruler of Italy under the Christian Democratic Party, which he founded. Schuman was the Christian Democratic ruler of France. Together the three are considered the founders of the EU.
mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War.
Romania, Poland, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Czech, Albania, Bulgaria.
Factors in the Holocaust
Philosophy of fascism
Fascism ( /ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek rejuvenation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood through a totalitarian single-party state that seeks the mass mobilization of a nation through discipline, indoctrination, physical education, and eugenics.[
Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn
Two Russian authors during Khrushchev's time. Pasternak was not allowed to claim his Nobel Prize because of continued repression, but Solz's novel was allowed to be published despite its somewhat "radical" ideas.
Existentialism Reflective of a postwar world in which the individual did not matter. One's existence is defined by what one does rather than by some "deeper spiritual essence." Moved beyond philosophical contemplation in order to take action and to "account" for themselves in a world of uncertainties. Emphasized the "anguish of the human existence." Drew from teachings of Nietzsche among others.
Second Vatican Council
Addressed the role of the Catholic Church in a modern, post WWII world. (The first was nearly 100 years previous, cut short by invasion of Rome under Italian unification) Reconciling and (in Ms. Crowley's words) expunging the memory of antisemitism from the memory of the Catholic Church. The acknowledgement that Catholicism is not the only path to salvation.
Postwar Economic Recovery
US top dog
Began as student uprisings, the revolt was fighting against Soviet-installed communism in Hungary. The Soviets executed and imprisoned many Hungarians and eventually regained control of the country until 1989.
an agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.
Geography of Hitler's control
From France in the West to Poland in the East.
The Royal Air Force in Britain. Helped win the Battle of Britain. Also important in bombing Germany after 1943 and in North Africa.
Invasion plans for Occupied France
Yalta and Potsdam
Meetings between the Allies during WWII. Laid the framework for peace after the war. Stalin promised to hold "free and unfettered elections" in Eastern Europe after the war.
Stalin and 5 year plans
Replaced New Economic Policy in 1928. Forced collectivization. Enforced by the purges. Aimed to industrialize without foreign investment; upped exports in attempt to raise capital for industrialization.
Results of the Spanish Civil War
The rebelling Nationalist military lead by Francisco Franco ended up seizing control of the Spanish capital, Madrid, there by causing the Republic to surrender to fascist rule.
Ideology of Italian Fascism
denounced democracy and liberalism: it accentuated class struggle, slip people into minority parties and led to selfishness, futility and empty talk. Preached: national solidarity and stage management of economic affairs, a corporative state
Marx vs. Lenin
Existentialism is the philosophical and cultural movement which holds that the starting point of philosophical thinking must be the individual and the experiences of the individual, that moral thinking and scientific thinking together do not suffice to understand human existence, and, therefore, that a further set of categories, governed by the norm of authenticity, is necessary to understand human existence
European feminism in the 60s/70s
Women were more involved, pushing for equality
Authors of WWI
Yeats, Rupert, (anti war)
Women in the work place
they worked and loss their jobs quickly after the war was over
Followed Stalin, gradually brought into power by party leaders who wanted to make sure control would never be consolidated in one individual ever again. The "thaw" of intellectual and cultural freedoms. Did not view war with the US as inevitable. Consequently phased out of power to live quietly in Moscow for the rest of his life.
Influences on surrealism
Nazi-Soviet 1939 non-aggression pact
The Soviets became frustrated that the Western nations kept refusing its military assistance due to a fear of socialism, so they signed a pact with Germany not to attack each other. Furthermore, they agreed to split Poland down the middle, which indeed happened after the Nazi invasion of Poland.
We can do it Holly the Repidure
Culture in Weimar Germany
Picasso! A reaction to the relativism of the world.