OB/GYN Chapter 44

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Congenital Hernia of the umbilicus that is covered with a membrane: cord may be seen in the middle of the mass.

Omphalocele

Protrusion of the brain from the cranial cavity

Cephalocele

Congenital Absence of the brain ans cranial vault with the cerebral hemispheres missing or reduced to small masses

Anencephaly

A nonlethal Genetic abnormality in which chromosomal makeup is 45 XO instead of the normal 46 XX or XY

Turner's Syndrome

Congenital fissure that remains open in the wall of the abdomen just to the right of the umbilical cord; bowel and other organs may protrude outside the abdomen from this opening

Gastroschisis

During the first trimester, the bowel normally herniates outside the abdominal cavity between 8 and 12 weeks.

Bowel Herniation

A congenitally deformed fetus is which the brain substance protrudes through a fissure in the occiput so that the brain and spinal cord occupy a single cavity.

Iniencephalus

Dilation of the ventricular system wihtout enlargement of the cranium.

Ventriculomegaly

Partial or complete absence of the cranium

Acrania

Fluid-filled structure, initially surrounding the neck; may extend upward to the head or laterally to the body.

Cystic Hygroma

Failure of forebrain to divide into cerebral hemispheres, which results in a single large ventricle with varying amounts of cerebral cortex that has been known to occur with trisomies 13 to 15 and trisomies 13 to 15 and trisomy 18.

Holoprosencephaly

Pregnancy occuring in the fallopian tube near the cornu of the uterus

Interstitial Pregnancy

A Physiologic cyst that develops within the ovary after ovulation and that secretes progesterone and prevents menses if fertilization occurs; may persist until 16th to 18th weeks of pregnancy.

Corpus Luteum Cyst

Simultaneous intrauterine and extrauterine pregnanct

Heterotopic Pregnancy

Ovum without an embryo

Anembryonic Pregnancy

Pregnancy outside the uterus

Ectopic Pregnancy

Retained products of conception

Incomplete abortion

Decidual reaction that occurs within the uterus in a patient with an ectopic pregnancy

Pseudogestational sac

Complete removal of all products of conception, including the placenta

Complete Abortion

Conditon in which trophoblastic tissue overtakes the pregnancy and propgates throughout the uterine cavity

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

The domiant structure seen within the embryonic cranium within the first trimester is that of the ______ which fills the lateral ventricles that it turn fill the cranial vault.

Choroid Plexus

_______ of the cranial vault is not complete in the first trimester; the resulting false cranial border definition may give the rise to a faulse-negative diagnosis.

ossification

An abnormality that may be seen near the end if the first trimester when there is absence of cranium superior to the orbits with preservation of the base of the skull and facial features with the brain projected from the open cranial vault is _____

anencephaly

In________ the choriod plexus is shown to be "dangling" in the dilated dependent lateral ventricle

Ventriculomegaly

On sonogrpahy a large posterior fossa cyst that is continuous with the fourth ventricle, elevated tentorium,and dilation of the third and lateral ventricles may be seen in a fetus with_______.

Dandy-Walker Malformation

The fetal urinary bladder becomes sonogrpahically apparent at _____ weeks of gestation.

10 to 12

One of the most common abnormalities seen sonographically in the first trimester is _______.

Cystic Hygroma

A potential Diagnostic pitfall for the sonographer is misinterpreting the hypoechoic or sonolucent embryonic skin surface in the region of the posterior neck. This has been described as the _________ sign and should not be confused with cystic hygroma, encephalocele,cervicle meningomyelocele, teratoma, or hemangioma

Pseudomembrane

Sonographically, placental hematomas may be difficult to distinguish from____ hemorrhages.

Subchorionic

By far the most coomon ovarian mass seen in the first trimester of pregancy is a(N)________ cyst.

Corpus Luteum

What are associated risk factors for ectopic pregnancy

Previous pelvic Infectioins, IUCD, Fallopian Tube Surgery, Infertility Treatments, and previous Ectopic Pregnancy

The most important finding when scanning for ectopic pregnancy is to determine if there is a normal intrauterine gestation (thus ruling out the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy) or if the uterine cavity is _______ and adnexal ____ is present.

Empty, Mass

As many as 20% of patients with ectopic pegnancy demonstrate an intrauterine saclike structure known as the _______.

Pseudogestational Sac

Cornual Pregnancy, or _____ is potentially the most life threatening of all ectopic gestations.

Intertital Pregnancy

Embryonic cardiac rates of less than _____ beats per minute at any gestational age within the first trimester have been shown to be a poor prognostic finding

90

The most common occurence of bleeding in the first trimester is from _________ hemorraghe.

Subchorionic

Characteristics for the sonographic diagnosis of _____ abortion consist of an empty uterus with no adnexal masses or free fluid and positive hCG levels.

Complete

Several sonographic findings may be shown with______ abortion, ranging from an intact gestational sac with a nonliving embryo to a collapsed gestational sac that is grossly misshapen

Incomplete

A proliferative disease of the trophoblast after a pregnancy is ______ disease.

Gestational Trophoblastic

In the above condition, the serum levels of beta-hCG are dramatically_______, often greater than 100,000 IU/mL.

Elevated

The characteristics_________ appearance of hydatidiform mole, which includes a moderately echogenic soft tissue mass filling the uterine cavity and studded with small cystic spaces representing hydropic chorionic villi, may be seen on ultrasound.

Snowstorm

Bilateral _______ cysts have been reported in as many as half of the molar pregnancies.

Thecalutein

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