PSYC300 Ch 14

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The area of psychology that focuses on how people are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others is called:

social psychology.

When we attempt to explain the cause of someone's behavior, we are utilizing _______.

attributions.

When a person assigns causes to another individual's behavior and assumes that the behavior is due to that individual's personal characteristics, a(n) _______ is made.

dispositional attribution

When driving down the highway, Gianna could not help but notice the young girl who seemed to be driving in a reckless manner. She immediately wondered if the girl was in an emergency or if something important was going on to make her drive like that. Gianna just made a(n)

situational (external) attribution.

Self-serving bias refers to our tendency to use:

dispositional attributions for our successes and situational attributions for our failures.

The term that refers to the fact that interpersonal attraction is influenced by the physical closeness of people's living quarters is:

proximity.

Diana was given a music CD as a gift. Although it was from a genre of music that she thought she would never like, she is realizing that the more she listens to it, the more she actually likes it. In fact, it is quickly becoming one of her favorite CDs. Which of the following is influencing her preference for this CD?

the mere exposure effect

The matching hypothesis suggests that:

we are likely to end up with someone similar to ourselves in attractiveness and other assets.

Which of the following plays a role in an individual's choice of a significant other?

-Similar level of physical attractivenes
-Similarity in personality
-Similar attitudes
All of the above

According to Robert Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love, the three basic components of love are the following:

commitment, passion, and intimacy

Rasha and Malik have been a couple for over 20 years. They still share similar interests, enjoy each others' company, and share a strong physical attraction to one another. According to Robert Sternberg, Rasha and Malik display

consummate love.

Changing one's behavior or thinking in order to go along with the group or to fit another's expectation is referred to as _______.

conformity

Which of the following researchers led a classic study on conformity?

Asch

When a person performs an action simply because an authority figure has given an order, the term that describes the behavior is:

obedience.

Which of the following accurately summarizes Milgram's "study of memory and learning"?

About 65% of the subjects administered the highest shock possible.

Based on Milgram's studies of obedience, it can be concluded that:

the tendency to obey the commands of authority figures is strong.

What is the term for the strategy used to gain first a favorable response to a small request, with the intent of making a person more likely to agree later to a larger request?

foot-in-the-door technique

Salvatore wanted to borrow $25 from his mom. Because he was not sure if she would agree, he decided to get creative and asked for $100. Just as he expected, she replied, "You want to borrow $100? Not a chance." He came back with, "Okay, Mom, how about just $25?" He was thrilled when she agreed. Salvatore just utilized which of the following compliance techniques?

Door-in-the-face technique

Audrey has been offered a free, four day cruise for two just for filling out an online survey. As she and her husband board the cruise liner and leave the shore, all those on board are told that the cruise was really a way to get an audience of people together to hear about a new "business opportunity". Audrey was on the receiving end of

the low-ball technique.

Which of the following is an example of social facilitation?

-Monita, who is a soccer player, performs better when there is a large group of people watching.
-George chooses not to engage in certain tasks because he knows other members of the group will eventually do the work.
-Kiera, a gymnast, gets so nervous when her friends come to her meets that she falls off the balance beam.
Only choices A and C are examples of social facilitation

When an individual, who is part of a larger group, chooses to put forth less effort than other group members, _______occurs.

social loafing

Diffusion of responsibility deals with the effects of which of the following on helping behavior?

number of bystanders

_____ can occur when individuals who are part of a group focus on preserving group solidarity at the expense of considering all possible alternatives or even failing to use rational thought in the process.

Groupthink

_____ refers to the relatively stable view we hold of people, objects, or issues learned by direct experience or vicariously via others and/or the media.

Attitude

When she is not at the bar, Jayla preaches to everyone about the dangers of smoking. However, she does smoke an occasional cigarette when she is at the bar with her friends although at those times, she feels somewhat frustrated by her own smoking behavior. Jayla is likely experiencing _____ when she smokes.

cognitive dissonance

When an individual purposely tries to change your view on something or change your behavior, he/she is utilizing

persuasion

Of the following choices, the best definition of aggression is:

intentionally inflicting physical or psychological harm on another

Which of the following factors offer a biological explanation for aggression?

Low arousal of the autonomic nervous system

The frustration-aggression hypothesis suggests that:

frustration produces aggression.

_____ occurs when an individual aims his/her aggression toward an innocent target.

Scapegoating

Research shows that all of the following factors play a role in aggression EXCEPT

empathy

Prejudice is to _______ as discrimination is to _______.

attitude; behavior

Which theory of prejudice is based on the idea that people tend to form in-groups and out-groups?

us versus them theory

Jordan and Doris are teenagers who live near six other teens. All eight of the teens tried out for the high school play, and all but Jordan and Doris were rewarded with a part in the play. Though Jordan and Doris were upset about not getting a part, they were more upset by the behaviors of the other six teens. It seemed that all of the students in the play formed a strong bond and sense of togetherness. They did not want anything to do with other students who were not in the play. Because of that, Jordan and Doris rarely see the other six teens from the neighborhood anymore. According to research in social psychology, which of the following is TRUE?

Jordan and Doris are part of the out-group.

Cynthia has recently begun a career with a Jewish-based agency. Up until now, she had not had any interaction with anyone who was Jewish. Based on the individuals she works with, she has found them to be a very close-knit group who care for their own in the community who need assistance. Additionally, she had found them to be very educated and assertive. Cynthia now holds the view that all Jewish people are the same: educated, close-knit within their own group, assertive, and caring toward other Jewish people who need help. Cynthia's view represents

a stereotype.

The realistic conflict theory would predict that the amount of prejudice would:

increase during an economic recession.

Christopher, a Canadian, feels that the Canadian way is the only way and clearly the best way. That being said, he feels that all other cultures are inferior to his. Which of the following concepts BEST describes Christpher's viewpoint?

Ethnocentrism

Based on research regarding the perception of racism in the United States, in which of the following areas of life does racism still linger?

-housing
-health care
-education
Racism still lingers in all of the above areas of life.

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