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Pretice Hall

epidermal cell

cell that makes up the dermal tissue, which is the outer covering of a plant

vessel elements

A specialized short, wide cell in angiosperms; arranged end to end, they form continuous tubes for water transport.

sieve tube element

phloem cell that is joined end-to-end to similar cells to form a continuous sieve tube

companion cell

A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube member by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube members.

parenchyma

the primary tissue of higher plants composed of thin-walled cells that remain capable of cell division even when mature

collenchyma

type of ground tissue cell with a strong, flexible cell wall; helps support larger plants

sclerenchyma

type of ground-tissue cell with an extremely thick, rigid cell wall that makes ground tissue tough and strong

meristem

undifferentiated tissue from which new cells are formed, as at the tip of a stem or root

meristemic tissue

types of tissue including the apical meristem and lateral meristem

apical meristem

Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.

differentiation

(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function

taproot

main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem

fibrous roots

part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest

root hair

tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root

cortex

Ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem.

endodermis

The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.

vascular cylinder

central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue-xylem and phloem

root cap

thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root

Casparian strip

A water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.

node

point on a stem where a leaf is attached

internode

a segment of a stem between two nodes

bud

a swelling on a plant stem consisting of overlapping immature leaves or petals

vascular bundle

a unit strand of the vascular system in stems and leaves of higher plants consisting essentially of xylem and phloem

pith

soft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants

primary growth

type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots

secondary growth

pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width

vascular cambium

lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time

cork cambium

A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth

heartwood

older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water

sapwood

newly formed outer wood lying between the cambium and the heartwood of a tree or woody plant

bark

tree structure that includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium, including phloem, the cork cambium, and cork

blade

especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole

petiole

the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf

mesophyll

The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.

palisade cells

cells that are underneath the upper epidermis, Site of most photosynthesis (layer in cell)

spongy cells

located beneath the palisade cells also contain chloroplasts but more importantly they are the site of gas exchange

stoma

opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf

guard cell

Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.

transpiration

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

adhesion

the property of sticking together

capillary action

a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries

pressure flow hypothesis

hypothesis that considers plants in terms of where they produce and use materials from photosynthesis

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