Martin Luther King Jr.
"I have a dream speech." Montgomery minister who led the non-violent civil rights movement starting with his leadship in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and SCLC.
The Chicago youth whose murder, for speaking to a white woman, angered the entire South.
Black citizen whose arrest led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955.
Governor of Arkansas who refused to integrate Arkansas schools.
A veteran of WWII serving in Normandy, a civil rights leader in Mississippi that helped blacks register to vote.
John F. Kennedy
President of the U.S. that pushed for the Civil Rights Act.
First African American to serve on the Supreme Court, Chief Counsel (lawyer) for the NAACP
Dwight D. Eisenhower
President of U.S. who sent in federal troops to Little Rock, Askansas to enforce the Supreme Court decision allowing the integration of public schools.
Learned non-violent resistance from Ghandi-led sit-in campaign in Nashville, Tenn.
Eugene "BULL" Connor
Public safety director that used violence against peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham.
First black student at the University of Mississippi.
A sit-in organization leader that got the mayor of Nashville to admit that he believed segregation was morally wrong.
Governor of Mississippi who refused to obey a court order to integrate the University of Mississippi.
Governor of Alabama that said, "I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever."
Sheriff of Selma, Ala. Used violence against peaceful demonstrators.
SNCC leader that used the phrase "Black Power."
Called for black separatism and urged blacks to fight back against whites.
President of the U.S .that pushed for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
Jim Crow Laws
Nickname for the series of laws that segregated facilities in the South.
Required businesses and schools that received federal funding to recruit minorities and women.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This was the legal end to segregation in America.
Plessy v. Fergusan
Supreme Court Decision that allowed states to segregate public facilities.Separate but Equal Doctrine.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Supreme Court decision that outlawed racial segregation in public schools.
Eliminated poll taxes (fees paid in order to vote).
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Black voters were registered and black voting tripled in South as a result.
Federal officials could monitor elections and register qualified black voters.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Banned discrimination in the sale and renting of housing.
Attach on peaceful marchers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge.
A form of civil disobedience started by four African-America college students at a Woolworth's in North Carolina.
Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas
School that was the first to be integrated in the South.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
First organized protest of African Americans against the racial rules of the South.
White Citizens Council
10,000 whites citizens from Alabama who opposed integration.
College-age protesters who traveled across the South challenging segregation.
Radical black political party formed by the SNCC.
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Student organization that worked to end segregation and racism in the South.
Southern Christian Leadership Council. The organization committed to non-violent protest and was led by Martin Luther King Jr.
Increased opposition to the demands of black Americans
A small group of Senators continues to speak in order to prevent a vote on a bill - they refused to stop speaking.
Civil Rights movement protests were always conducted this way.
The major problem facing over half of all African-Americans during the 1960s.
The goal of the civil rights leaders was to draw attention to a problem and gain this.
A vote of 60 Senators or more to stop all debates and force a vote on a bill.