Civil Rights

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Terms for Mr. Krueger's 8th grade social studies class

Martin Luther King Jr.

"I have a dream speech." Montgomery minister who led the non-violent civil rights movement starting with his leadship in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and SCLC.

Emmett Till

The Chicago youth whose murder, for speaking to a white woman, angered the entire South.

Rosa Parks

Black citizen whose arrest led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955.

Orval Faubus

Governor of Arkansas who refused to integrate Arkansas schools.

Medgar Evers

A veteran of WWII serving in Normandy, a civil rights leader in Mississippi that helped blacks register to vote.

John F. Kennedy

President of the U.S. that pushed for the Civil Rights Act.

Thurgood Marshall

First African American to serve on the Supreme Court, Chief Counsel (lawyer) for the NAACP

Dwight D. Eisenhower

President of U.S. who sent in federal troops to Little Rock, Askansas to enforce the Supreme Court decision allowing the integration of public schools.

James Lawson

Learned non-violent resistance from Ghandi-led sit-in campaign in Nashville, Tenn.

Eugene "BULL" Connor

Public safety director that used violence against peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham.

James Meredith

First black student at the University of Mississippi.

Diane Nash

A sit-in organization leader that got the mayor of Nashville to admit that he believed segregation was morally wrong.

Ross Barnett

Governor of Mississippi who refused to obey a court order to integrate the University of Mississippi.

George Wallace

Governor of Alabama that said, "I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever."

Jim Clark

Sheriff of Selma, Ala. Used violence against peaceful demonstrators.

Stokely Carmichael

SNCC leader that used the phrase "Black Power."

Malcolm X

Called for black separatism and urged blacks to fight back against whites.

Lyndon Johnson

President of the U.S .that pushed for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.

Jim Crow Laws

Nickname for the series of laws that segregated facilities in the South.

Affirmative Action

Required businesses and schools that received federal funding to recruit minorities and women.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This was the legal end to segregation in America.

Plessy v. Fergusan

Supreme Court Decision that allowed states to segregate public facilities.Separate but Equal Doctrine.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

Supreme Court decision that outlawed racial segregation in public schools.

24th Amendment

Eliminated poll taxes (fees paid in order to vote).

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Black voters were registered and black voting tripled in South as a result.
Federal officials could monitor elections and register qualified black voters.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Banned discrimination in the sale and renting of housing.

Bloody Sunday

Attach on peaceful marchers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

Sit-In Campaigns

A form of civil disobedience started by four African-America college students at a Woolworth's in North Carolina.

Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas

School that was the first to be integrated in the South.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

First organized protest of African Americans against the racial rules of the South.

White Citizens Council

10,000 whites citizens from Alabama who opposed integration.

Freedom Riders

College-age protesters who traveled across the South challenging segregation.

Black Panthers

Radical black political party formed by the SNCC.

SNCC

The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Student organization that worked to end segregation and racism in the South.

SCLC

Southern Christian Leadership Council. The organization committed to non-violent protest and was led by Martin Luther King Jr.

White backlash

Increased opposition to the demands of black Americans

Filibuster

A small group of Senators continues to speak in order to prevent a vote on a bill - they refused to stop speaking.

Non-violent/peaceful

Civil Rights movement protests were always conducted this way.

Poverty

The major problem facing over half of all African-Americans during the 1960s.

Support/sympathy

The goal of the civil rights leaders was to draw attention to a problem and gain this.

Cloture

A vote of 60 Senators or more to stop all debates and force a vote on a bill.

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