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Changes in habitat have tremendous effects on the organisms that depend on them. These effects are ________.

generally negative; organisms are already adapted to the habitats in which they occur and any change is likely to render the habitat less suitable

In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ________.

having a bit more fur to keep you warm in cold weather

Removal of which of the following species will always result in the greatest changes in an ecological system?

a keystone species

The largest pools of carbon in the carbon cycle are ________.

c. sedimentary rock and fossil fuels

Endemic species ________.

are found only in one place on the planet

The statement, "hiking up a mountain in the southwestern United States is like walking from Mexico to Canada," is meant to demonstrate that ________ change(s) rapidly as you change altitude and latitude.

biomes

Which of the following are pioneer species?

lichens

The two processes that determine the world's current biodiversity are ________.

extinction and speciation rates

The energy content and biomass of ________ is lowest in any food web.

top carnivores

In a eutrophic aquatic ecosystem dissolved oxygen ________ and dissolved macronutrients ________.

decreases/increase

Birds with average-sized wings survived a severe storm more successfully than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings. This illustrates ___________.

stabilizing selection

Grazing animals such as deer are ________.

primary consumers or herbivores

Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.

competition

Which of the following list illustrates the levels of biological organization from least complex to the most complex?

atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, population, ecosystem

The swamplands of extreme southern Louisiana, which contain elements of both the forests and coastal marshes, could be called ________.

an ecotone

High population density can ________.

increase the incidence of disease transmission

A Type I survivorship curve, with higher death rates at older ages, is typical of ________.

large mammals such as gorillas

Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction?

an orchid endemic to a forest where logging is occurring

A climax community always ________.

remains in place until a disturbance restarts succession

Which of the following would represent a clumped population dispersion pattern?

a pod of 40 migrating gray whales

The greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in ________.

insects

A small section of prairie grasses, over a year, produces enough biomass to feed insects, mice, rabbits, birds, deer, antelope, and a host of decomposers. The amount of food potentially available to the herbivores is the ________.

net primary production

Unregulated populations, such as many types of invasive species, tend to increase by ________.

exponential growth

Groups of organisms with low biotic potential, such as gray whales, that produce at most one offspring every other year ________.

are K-selected

________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.

Producers

Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes nitrogen available to plants and is carried out by ________.

mutualistic and free-living bacteria

In general, successfully introduced species experience ________.

competitive success against native species

The functional role of a species in its community is its ________.

niche

A coyote, which can alter its food intake to match seasonal abundance of plants, fruits, or small animals, is considered to be ________.

a generalist, able to be flexible

Extinction is ________.

a natural process

The country of Belize depends on lobster for a major portion of its income, along with fishing and tourism. Over the past 30 years the average size of an individual lobster has dropped, even as increasing numbers of Belizeans buy boats, build lobster traps, and enter the industry. This is an example of ________.

overharvesting

A trophic cascade is the effect of ________ on ________.

top consumers/abundance of lower consumers

The origin of all nitrogen in biological tissues is ________.

atmospheric N2 gas

Orchids require tree limbs for support but do not harm the trees. This demonstrates ________.

commensalism

Global climate change may produce major shifts in biomes for any given location because ________.

mean temperature, precipitation and salinity will change

The carrying capacity is the ________.

maximum sustainable population that a given environment can support

Environmentally and economically acceptable means of controlling introduced invasive species include ________.

removal of all the invasive individuals by collecting, baiting, trapping and, for plants, prescribed burning

population density

Number of individuals within a population per unit area

habitat

Specific environment in which an organism lives

environmental resistance

Stabilizes a population and its carrying capacity

community

Assemblage of populations that live in the same area at the same time

endemic

Species occurring in only one area

temperate deciduous forest

Describes biome in the eastern united states, north central europe, and eastern china; characterized by stable precipitation and seasonal temperature variation

temperate grassland

Describes the region west of the mississippi river; characterized by limited precipitation, thick organic soils and extreme temperature variation in winter and summer

chaparral

Describes the terrestrial biome bordering the Mediterranean sea; characterized by mild wet winters and warm dry summers

desert

Describes Cairo, Egypt, and northwest Mexico; characterized by sparse rainfall and much variation in temperature

temperate rainforest

Describes the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Nagasaki, Japan; characterized by heavy rainfall and relatively stable temperatures

tropical rainforest

Describes an equatorial zone with year round precipitation and uniformly warm temperatures

Density-dependent factors ________.

include the effects of disease, predators and food on a single species within a community

Recombinant DNA ________.

is the merging of DNA from unrelated organisms to create new genetic varieties

What is true about GM crops?

The United States leads the world in land area dedicated to GM crops

Since 1960, pesticide use has risen ________ worldwide.

fourfold

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety ________.

outlines regulations on international trade of GM foods

During the past half century, global food production has ________ world population growth.

grown at a faster rate than

As of 2008, the average American generates ________ lbs. of solid waste per day.

4.5

The Fresh Kills Landfill ________.

site will be converted into a public park

Until the mid-19th century, New York City's official method of garbage disposal was ________.

dumping it off piers into the East River

Approximately ________% of all U.S. residents are served by curbside recycling programs in ________ states.

50; 50

Heavy metals ________.

bioaccumulate in animal tissues

Environmental protection can positively affect local economies by ________.

creating jobs that will attract companies from other sectors of the economy

Ecological economists suggest that we can gain better understanding of economics and human interactions with the environment if we view human economies as ________.

entities that are integrated within natural systems

Many proponents of sustainability believe that encouraging local self-sufficiency is important for building sustainable societies because ________.

when people are tied more closely to the area they live in, they will value the area more and seek to sustain its environment and its human communities

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