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Define adaptive immunity.

the ability of the body to specifically react to an infection

Where are the T lymphocytes specialized?

In the thymus.

Where are the B lymphocytes specialized?

In the bone marrow.

Define antigen.

any molecule that will produce an immune response.

What is the major difference between T and B cells?

T cells take on antigens one on one; B cells make many antibodies and those fight off the antigen.

Why is it necessary to have an abundance of T cells but not of B cells?

Because T cells take on antigens one on one to kill them; therefore there should be more of them than B cells which do no fighting of their own but kill antigens indirectly with their antibodies.

Why is there no immune response in HIV patients?

because HIV destroys the CDs so that the antibodies cannot bind with the antigen.

What are CDs (clusters of differentiation) and on what type of cell are they found?

glycoproteins on the surface of T lymphocytes important for adhesion to receptors

What are the most common CDs?

CD4+ and CD8+

Name four types of T lymphocytes.

Helper T cells, Cytotoxic T cells, Memory T cells, and Regulatory T cells

What is the function of helper T cells?

to stimulate B cells to create antibodies

What is the function of regulatory cells?

to combat autoimmunity by suppressing "non educated" T cells.

After recognizing an antigen, B cells must be activated how?

Helper T cells must activate the B cells before they can produce antibodies.

What is an MHC?

a major histocompatibility complex lies on the surface of a macrophage and mediates interaction between leukocytes

Name the five different types of antibodies made by B cells.

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE

What is the least common type of antibody?

IgE

What is the most common type of antibody?

IgG

Which antibody is responsible for blood type?

IgM

Which antibody is found in saliva, tears, and breast milk?

IgA

Which antibody acts as an antigen binding receptor on B cells?

IgD

Which antibody is responsible for inflammatory response?

IgE

What is the function of an antibody?

antibodies gather antigens by agglutinating so that macrophges can more easily phagocytize them

Who is credited with discovering vaccines?

Jenner

Name the three things that you are exposed to in vaccines.

weak pathogens, dead pathogens, or toxins from pathogens

active immunity

you have been exposed to the pathogen; naturally acquired (naturally being exposed) or artificially acquired (vaccines)

passive immunity

you have not been exposed; naturally acquired (ex. from mother through placenta or milk) or artificially acquired (given antibodies such as anti venom)

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