Psychology Homework 5

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Which of the following is NOT a type of attention?

focused

The term ________ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are irrelevant.

selective attention

Selective attention is _______, whereas divided attention is _______.

focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:

sustained attention.

Zack is in a crowded restaurant, trying to pay attention to the waiter, who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because ________ attention declines as one ages.

selective

Competently driving a car demands _______.

divided attention

The retention of information about the when and where of life's happenings is called ________ memory.

episodic

A person's knowledge about the world is called ________ memory.

semantic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.

semantic; episodic

Working memory is also called ________ memory.

short-term

What is TRUE about the relationship between semantic memory and aging?

Older adults often take longer to retrieve semantic information, but they usually can retrieve it.

Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:

working memory and perceptual speed.

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they have:

slower perceptual speed.

________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection.

Explicit; implicit

Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?

implicit

________ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.

Wisdom

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?

Stanley, who is highly creative

In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?

do crossword puzzles

If cognitive training improves older adults' memory, then older adults must:

have greater memory capacity than is typically used.

Eighty-seven-year-old Miriam Hansen has amazed her friends and relatives by taking college classes. Not only does she enjoy them, but she does well. In fact, she actually seems to have become brighter since she began studying. How can we account for this?

Miriam has probably learned how to improve her reasoning skills.

Which of the following is NOT one of the brain imaging techniques that is used in cognitive neuroscience to examine the activity of the brain during certain cognitive activities?

CT scans

Martin has recently had a brain imaging test done, and it has revealed atrophy in the prefrontal lobe of his cerebral cortex. Which of the following types of memory would be most likely to be deficient as a result of this physiological decline?

working memory

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Widaman-Gibbs's sense of:

integrity.

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience ________ in later adulthood.

despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

integrity versus despair

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by:

wisdom.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review.

Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?

activity

Which of the following is NOT one of the regrets that low-income older adults reported more as a result of their life review?

religion

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, the Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

activity theory.

Now that Nastasya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will:

spend most of her time with familiar friends.

Which two theories are most opposite?

activity theory and socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotion-related and _______ -related.

knowledge

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

According to some research, older adults (35 to 84 years of age) focus on ________ whereas the oldest adults (85 to 105 years of age) tend to focus on _______.

family; health

One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?

hostility

Which of the personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an earlier death)?

high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion

Which of the following has been found to be the most frequent form of ageism?

acting disrespectfully toward older adults

Although older adults (over the age of 65) make up only ____% of the U.S. population, some estimates suggest that ______ of the total health bills for the United States go to care for that group of citizens.

12; one-third

Lizeanne is a 67-year-old retired teacher. Under the current governmental programs, her health care costs will be paid, at least in part, by:

Medicare.

What percentage of older people live in poverty since 2008?

9.7

What double jeopardy do elderly women face?

ageism and sexism

Which activity results in less frailty in order adults?

volunteering

Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?

older adults

These days, approximately ____% of older adults are living in cohabiting situations for a wide variety of reasons.

3

Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance with:

activities of daily living.

According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:

are associated with lower levels of depression for women.

Social support is negatively correlated with:

disease.

Which factor appears to be highly associated with greater poverty in old age?

ethnicity

How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society?

they rely on family networks and often the church

Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:

feminine.

What is the "triple jeopardy" faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income and financial levels of support in the elder years?

ageism, sexism, and racism

Who of the following is most likely to live in poverty during later adulthood?

an African-American female

The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.

collectivistic

In general, successful aging requires:

a commitment to be active

Twenty-five years ago, definitions of death centered on:

Breathing, blood pressure, and rigor mortis

Death occurs neurologically when ________ for a specified period of time.

one's brain shows no electrical activity

The ________ portions of the brain often die sooner than the ________ portions.

higher; lower

Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:

human life depends on characteristics such as intelligence and personality which are controlled in that brain area.

If the cortical death definition were adopted, then physicians could claim a person is dead when his or her ________ is no longer functioning.

higher brain

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function. Her parents decide to take her off the life-support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?

It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

If legal definitions of death were modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower brain, which of the following could become a legal practice?

no life support to patients with no cortical function

Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

living will or advance directive

Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that:

his physician will not use means to prolong his life when death is imminent.

Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?

Only the terminally ill can write one.

An advance directive/living will must be signed when:

an individual is still able to think clearly.

Levi sustained severe and irreversible brain damage in an auto accident. His wife and his parents decided to remove the life-support system, and Levi subsequently died. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Mieka was in a major car accident and, as a result, cannot live without being hooked up to a respirator. After several months of living in a coma attached to this machine, Mieka's parents decided to have the respirator turned off and Mieka died two days later. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Damon placed a pillow over his terminally ill wife and smothered her to end her suffering. This is an example of:

active euthanasia.

Which of the following is a main issue in the controversy over euthanasia?

quality of life

In the United States, ________ euthanasia is generally more accepted than ________ euthanasia.

passive; active

Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, has assisted a number of terminally ill patients in ending their lives. After a series of legal trials, Dr. Kevorkian was:

convicted of second-degree murder and given a long prison sentence.

Active euthanasia is a crime in __________ states (in the United States).

49

Your text reported that active euthanasia is legal in:

the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Uruguay.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:

suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

The hospice was developed with the goal of:

making the final stage of dying as pain free as possible.

Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to:

make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.

The main purpose of a hospice is to:

make death more peaceful and less taxing on the dying individual and their family members.

Which of the following medical interventions would most likely be found in a hospice?

morphine

Two hundred years ago, what percentage of children died before their 10th birthday?

50

A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about age:

47.

A person born today will most likely live until about age:

78.

An individual is most likely to die:

in a hospital.

In contrast to those of many other cultures, people in the United States:

have less direct experience associated with death.

In the Gond culture of India, death is believed to be caused by:

magic and demons.

One way in which most societies are alike regarding death is that:

biological death is not equated with spiritual death.

An emphasis in our culture on using all life-prolonging methods possible, even in the face of certain death, is a sign of our culture's:

denial of death.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?

denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the first stage of dying is:

denial and isolation.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the second stage of dying is:

anger.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the third stage of dying is:

bargaining.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that when a person is dying, depression is:

part of the normal process of disconnecting oneself from love objects.

Ada knows that she has liver cancer and will not live much longer. In her prayers, she asks God to let her live one more year, and she will promise to set everything right with her family and loved ones. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that this type of reaction to death tends to occur:

in the middle of the process of adjusting to death.

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler-Ross' stages of dying?

bargaining

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that, as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person tends to move from:

denial to acceptance.

All but one of the following statements reflect Elisabeth Kübler-Ross' stages of dying. Which one is NOT true?

Family and friends should attempt to cheer up patients in the depression stage of dying.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?

Allow the person to experience and work through the depression.

The stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is:

acceptance.

Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Kübler-Ross' theory of dying?

Neither she nor independent research have demonstrated that the five stages actually exist.

Which two factors may work together as an adaptive strategy for some older adults who face death?

denial and perceived control

For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent death?

Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.

Luka has just found out that she has cancer. She has told her daughter that she knows that she has the disease but is not really worried about dying from it, because she is convinced that her treatments will be completely effective. Luka may be engaging in:

denial.

In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?

Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.

Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to:

be aware that they are dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?

Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and about internal growth.

A view that grief proceeds in stages would not address:

the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

Grief is most like:

a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Marie's sister died 3 years ago. Marie is consistently bothered by sleeping problems, restlessness, and irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of the following is probably TRUE of Marie?

She is experiencing an unusually long grief period and should seek help.

Approximately __________ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions.

80 to 90%

Approximately __________ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.

10 to 20%

Which of the following deaths would probably be most difficult for the surviving family members to cope with?

Maurice, a 44-year-old father of two who was killed suddenly in a car accident.

Three family members are discussing their mother's last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better.

There are roughly ________ times more widows than widowers over the age of 85 years in the United States.

five

The key feature of a successful program that helps widows adjust to the deaths of their spouses is:

involvement of volunteer widows as counselors.

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:

funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

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