APES Laws and Treaties

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Antarctic Treaty

An international agreement that prohibits all military activity on the Antarctic continent and allows for inspection of all nations' facilities there. It also nullifies allterritorial claims to Antarctic land and pledges the signatories to peaceful cooperation in exploration and research.

Atomic Energy Act

federal law that a commission to oversee nuclear weapons and to promote peacetime uses of atomic energy

Clean Air Act

Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants

Clean Water Acts

established in 1972 and it set national water quality goals and created pollutant discharge permits

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act

Superfund, designed to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites

Consumer Product Safety Act

encourage safety in product design and better quality control

Convention of Ozone Depletion and the Montreal Protocol

international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

Controls the exploitation of endangered species through international legislation. Bans hunting, capturing and selling of threatened species and bans the import of ivory.

Declaration of the Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Declaration)

The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution

Endangered Species Act

Protects species that are considered to be threatened or endangered. Includes migratory birds and their habitats.

Energy Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

Requires reporting of toxic releases: the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI); Encourages response for chemical releases

Energy Policy Act

Authorizes the president to draw from the petroleum reserve as well as established a permanent home-heating oil reserve in the Northeast. Clarifies when the president can draw from these resources.

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

Assures the safety, wholesomeness, efficacy, and truthful packaging and labeling of food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices.

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. All pesticides used in the United States must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Registration assures that pesticides will be properly labeled and that, if used in accordance with specifications, they will not cause unreasonable harm to the environment.

Food Quality Protection Act

Set pesticide limits in food, & all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects

Lacey Act

A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species.

Convention of Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

Law of the Sea Convention

sets rules for the use of the world's oceans

Madrid Protocol

Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 yrs in Antarctica

Magratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act

requires purchase of a stamp by waterfowl hunters. Revenue generated by is used to acquire wetlands. Has protected approx. 4.5 million acres of waterfowl habitat

National Wildlife Refuge System Act

provides guidlines for administration and management of all areas in the system including wildlife refuges, areas for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction

National Environmental Policy Act

directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account in decision making. EIP statements required for every major project

Nuclear Waste Policy Act

Established a site to identify for and construct an underground repository for spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste

Occupational Safety and Health Act

created to protect worker and health. Provide environment free from dangers to their safety and health

Ocean Dumping Ban Act

makes it unlawful for any person to dump or transport for the purpose of dumping sewage, sludge, or industrial waste into waters

Oil Pollution Act

companies must have a detailed containment and clean up plan in case of an oil spill in order to ship oil into the US

Pollution Prevention Act

requires facilities to reduce pollution as its source. Reduction can be in volume or toxicity

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

management of non hazardous and hazardous solid wastes including landfills and storage tanks. Set minimum standards for all waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.

Safe Drinking Water Act

EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and eversees all of the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement these standards

Soil Conservation Act

established the soil conservation service, which deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil surveys, and does research on soil salinity

Solid Waste Disposal Act

to find better and more efficient ways to dispose of solid waste (shredding, burning)

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

requires restoration of abandoned mines

Taylor Grazing Act

regulates grazing on federal public land

Toxic Substance Control Act

EPA controls the 75,000 industrial chemicals produced or imported into the US. Bans the manufacture and import of those that pose an unreasonable risk

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

selected rivers in the US are preserved for possessing outstandingly, remarkable scenic, recreational, cultural (etc.) values

Wilderness Act

allowed congress to set aside federally owned land for preservation

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