Alcohol provides __ calories per gram.
Where is alcohol absorbed?
Stomach (20%) and Upper small intestine (80%)
Where is alcohol metabolized?
What enzyme breaks down alcohol?
Who has more alcohol dehydrogenase, men or women?
What factors influence alcohol metabolism?
Food-presence slows absorption
Gender-women absorb 30% more alcohol
How does alcohol affect the body? (4 stages)
1) Judgement and reasoning
2) Speech and vision centers
3) Voluntary muscle control
4) Respiration and heart, brain becomes subdued
With continued exposure, alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate
Actual change in sensitivity to a drug
Health benefits of drinking moderate amounts of alcohol
Decrease incidence of heart disease through increases in HDL and inhibited blood clotting
Less likely to have gallstones and Type II diabetes
Body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 through 29.9
BMI of 30 or greater
BMI of less than 18.5
Problems associated with underweight
Minimal body fat stores
Decreased energy reserves during times of physiological stress or injury
Disease risk: Body circumference
Men: over 40 inches
Women: over 35 inches
Disease risk: Waist-to-hip ratio
Men: over 1.0
Women: over over 0.8
How many calories in 1 pound of stored fat?
3 components of energy expenditure
Basal metabolic rate
Rate body expends energy to support vital functions (at rest)
Thermic effect of food
Production of heat that occurs after eating
What does the Ob gene produce?
What does leptin do?
Tells the body to stop eating
Possible link between overweight and Ob gene
Defective Ob gene (↓ leptin production) or unresponsive to leptin
Caffeine, Fever, Growth, Height
High thyroid hormone
Male gender, Muscle mass
Low thyroid hormone
Reduced energy intake (fasting, starvation, low calorie diet)
What happens when we overeat?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins converted to fat
What happens when we fast?
Glycogen, fat stores, protein broken down into glucose for energy
What is foodborne illness?
Illness occurring as a result of ingesting food or water contaminated with a poisonous substance
Foodborne illness caused by a toxin or chemical
Foodborne illness caused by live bacteria, virus, or parasites
3 Foodborne Infections
2 Foodborne Intoxications
Good handwashing practices
20 seconds, warm soapy water
Food Danger Zone
Safe cooking temperature: Poultry breasts/well done beef
Safe cooking temperature: Medium rare beef
Safe cooking temperature: Ground beef
Safe cooking temperature: Whole chicken/turkey
Substances used to prevent, destroy, or repel harmful pests
Destroys the target pest and then breaks down quickly into harmless products
What are challenges to ensuring a safe food supply?
Advances in trade and transportation
People are eating a greater variety of food Increase in the "at risk" populations (elderly, children, people with compromised immune systems)
More meals prepared & eaten outside the home
Changes in food preparation and handling practices
Newly recognized microorganisms
Globalization of the food market
Any substance added to food, including substances used in production, processing, treatment, packaging, transportation, or storage
Functions of food additives
Enhance color, flavor, texture, stability, or nutritional content of food
What is GRAS?
Generally Recognized As Safe
List of ingredients, established by the FDA, that has long been in use and were believed safe
Process of exposing a substance to low doses of radiation, using gamma rays, x-rays, or electricity to kill insects, bacteria, and other potentially harmful microorganisms
The use of biotechnology to alter the genes of a plant in an effort to create a new plant with different traits
Risks of genetic engineering
Long term consequences unknown
Controversy over labeling
Benefit of genetic engineering
Can be used to boost the nutritional value of foods
To carry organic label, raw foods must be ___% organic
To carry organic label, processed foods must be ___% organic
To carry made with organic label, foods must be ___% organic
Inability to acquire or consume an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways, or the uncertainty that one will be able to do so
Main cause of food insecurity in the U.S.