LC Biology 3.2a Heart

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biology

Closed circulatory system

A method of transport where the blood remains in a continuous system of blood vessels

Open circulatory system

A method of transport where the heart pumps blood into vessels that are open ended

Systemic circulation

Supplies blood to the body

Pulmonary circulation

Supplies blood to the lungs

Coronary circulation

Supplies blood to the cardiac muscle

Coronary artery

Supplies blood to the heart, exits aorta just above the semi-lunar valves

Renal circulation

Supplies blood to the kidneys

Hepatic circulation

Supplies blood to the liver

Hepatic portal vein

Carries blood from the intestines to the liver

Portal system

A blood pathway that begins and ends in capillaries

Heart

Organ containing four chambers which pump blood around the body

Cardiac muscle

Involuntary heart muscle that doesn't tire

Right atrium

A heart chamber that receives blood from the body

Right ventricle

A heart chamber that pumps blood to the lungs

Left atrium

A heart chamber that receives blood from the lungs

Left ventricle

A heart chamber that pumps blood to the body

Septum

A wall that separates the left and the right side of the heart

Pericardial fluid

A Substance that reduces friction between the cardiac muscle and the pericardium

Tricuspid valve

Prevents back-flow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium - 3 flaps

Bicuspid valve

Prevents back-flow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium - 2 flaps

Semi-lunar valves

Prevent back-flow of blood from the aorta or pulmonary artery into the ventricles - 3 flaps

Diastole

Relaxation of the heart chambers

Systole

Contraction of the heart chambers

Sino-atrial node

A small bundle of specialised tissue that causes the atria to contract, located in the right atrium (SA node)

Pacemaker

Another name for the sino-atrial node

Atrio-ventricular node

Similar to the Pacemaker but it causes the ventricles to contract (AV node)

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A record of the electrical activity of the heart

Heart murmur

An abnormal sound associated with heartbeat

Vena cava

Carries de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart

Inferior vena cava

Carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower parts of the body to the heart

Superior vena cava

Carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper parts of the body to the heart

Pulmonary artery

A blood vessel that carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary veins

Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

Aorta

Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body

Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and have a thick wall and narrow lumen

Arterioles

Blood vessels that connect arteries and capillaries

Capillaries

Tiny vessels that exchange substances with the body cells

Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart and have a relatively thin wall, a wide lumen and valves

Venules

Blood vessels that connect capillaries and veins

Valves

Prevent back-flow of blood

Inelastic collagen

Tough outer layer of arteries and veins, which prevents the walls from over-expansion

Involuntary muscle and elastic fibres

Middle layer of arteries and veins, which adjusts their size

Endothelium

Inner single layer of living cells, which surrounds the lumen

Pulse

The alternate expansion and contraction of the arteries

Blood pressure

The force that the blood exerts against the wall of a blood vessel

Hypertension

High blood pressure

Sphygmomanometer

A device with which human blood pressure is measured

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