Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

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Copernicus

Man who published the first idea of Heliocentric Theory

Francis Bacon

scientist who used animal and plant classification systems to place Imperial England around the world

Galileo

Scientist who withdrew his own view of the heliocentric theory

Johann Guttenberg

Inventor of the printing press

Issac Newton

Mathmatician who believed that god set everything in motion and explained the law of gravity

John Locke

Man who believed that all people could revolt if their leaders withheld natural rights

Montesquieu

French philosopher who believed that governments should be separated by a system of checks and balances

Rousseau

French philosopher who wrote about a social contract that would give up individual rights to the whole community. Not King

Thomas Hobbes

Author of Leviathan who wanted an absolute ruler in charge of the government

Martin Luther

Man who passionately believed that the sale of indulgences was immoral

Descartes

Skeptical about middle age scientist and urged science to use math to find truth

Scientific Method

Use of logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas

John Locke's natural rights

Life liberty and property

Inductive Reasoning

reasoning from detailed facts to general principles

Deductive Reasoning

reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)

Sale of Indulgences

This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money. People would but "tickets to heaven", without having to go to church anymore

Salvation

The act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

Heresy

the crime of holding a belief that goes against established religion

Absolutism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator

Habeas Corpus

a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime

Enlightenment

a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

English Bill of Rights

document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament

Niall Ferguson's 6 killer apps

1) Science
2) Consumerism
3) Competition
4) Technology
5) Work-Ethic
6) Democracy

Mercantilism

an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Quipa

the Incas created this device, a set of knotted strings that could be used to record data

Conquistadors

spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

Monopoly

A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

Heliocentric Theory

the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.

Geocentric Theory

Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.

Leviathan

Book written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

5 core beliefs of French Philosophers

1) Reason
2) Nature
3) Happiness
4) Progress
5) Liberty

95th thesis

A document Martin Luther wrote to condemn the Catholic church, the sale of indulgences and was a heresy

Aristotle

Scientist who believed that the Earth is the center of the universe

Pope Leo X

This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther

St. Peter's Basilica

Largest Christian church in the world. Located in the Vatican City in Italy. The dome was created by Michelangelo.

English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished

Great Divergence

income inequality increasing between industrialized and developing countries

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