Exam 4

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CH. 13-16

based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences.

The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was

cooperative learning.

According to Slavin (2003), a "practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom," is

perceived incompatibility of actions or goals

Conflict is defined as

competition

Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?

Prisoner and Commons Dilemma

Attempting to explain others' behavior dispositionally is a characteristic of

social dilemma

Some individuals have many children so that they can ensure someone will take care of them in the future. However, this contributes to the collective devastation of overpopulation. This is an example of

a social dilemma

Pursuing one's self-interest to the collective detriment of one's community or society is the central pattern in

bargaining

Motto and Yoko are roommates and are experiencing a conflict about what type of cable television service is within their budget. They negotiate by having Yoko, who wanted a more expensive service, pay the remainder of the bill after both of them have paid for half of the cost of the less expensive service. What form of communication did Motto and Yoko use to resolve their conflict?

has little real effect on peoples behavior

According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma

competition between the groups was introduced

In Sherif's research, the camper groups became hostile towards each other when

mirror image perceptions

The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as

either equality or the fulfillment of a need

Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as

integrative

Mediators seek to establish _______ agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.

conciliation

Osgood's (1980) GRIT strategy is an alternative that best fits into the _______ category of the "four C's of peacemaking."

situationally; dispositionally

In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior _______ and others' behavior _______.

the opponents can communicate with one another.

Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if

trust

According to conflict researchers, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns if your relationship with your partner includes

bicultural

According to Phinney (1990), someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a _______ identity.

responsibility each person feels for it.

The smaller the group, the more

integrative agreement

Ahmed and Fatima, two teenage siblings, are fighting over the evening newspaper. Knowing Ahmed only wants the sports section and Fatima only wants the latest stock quotations, their mother takes the paper and gives each the section containing the news of interest. In this case the mother arrived at a(n)

sympathy

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic that conflict expert Deutsch (1993) advises negotiators to exhibit?

can stimulate improved human relations

The occurrence of conflict in any relationship

Arbitration

_______ occurs when a neutral third party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement

superordinate goals

Through the use of _______, Muzafer Sherif made boy camper enemies into friends.

statistical prediction is usually superior to expert intuition.

When researchers pit statistical prediction—such as predicting graduate school success using a formula that includes grades and aptitude scores—against interviewers' intuitive prediction,

only ourselves

According to Seligman's (2002) analysis of the attitudes that promote near-epidemic levels of depression in America, most of us feel that, if we do not "make it" in today's world, we can blame

with a pounding heart; no longer shy

Brodt and Zimbardo (1981) found that shy women who were bombarded with loud noise and told that it would leave them _______ were subsequently _______ when interacting with a handsome male.

"I've learned my lesson"

Which of the following is NOT an example of one of the components of a pessimistic explanatory style?

the confirmation bias

Research indicates that when interviewers are instructed to test for a trait, they tend to ask questions that show evidence of

if students or clinicians expected a particular association, they perceived it, regardless of whether the data was supportive

Chapman and Chapman had college students and professional clinicians study the relationship between patients' test performances and diagnoses. They found that

defensive pessimism

According to Lewinsohn and his colleagues (1985), which of the following does NOT belong in the vicious cycle of depression?

"It's going to last forever"

Which of the following attributions regarding a failure or setback illustrates the stable quality of a depressed person's explanatory style?

"It's going to affect everything I do"

Which of the following attributions regarding a failure or a setback illustrates the global quality of a depressed person's explanatory style?

Carefree procrastinator; higher

_____ students reported lower stress and illness early in the semester and _____ illness later in the semester

her own motivation

As a result of participating in a program to help her quit smoking, Anne has not had a cigarette for three weeks. She is least likely to return to smoking if she attributes her success in quitting the habit to

reduce their social anxiety

Research by Haemmerlie and Montgomery (1986) supported the notion that social skills training can lead shy men to

scientific

Myers suggests that the pervasiveness of illusory thinking points to the need for a _______ study of thought and behavior

explanatory style therapy

Maria's therapist instructed her to monitor her attributions for successes and failures.
Maria is probably participating in

statistics

Research suggests that the prediction of someone's future academic success is best when the prediction is based on

the definition of psychological disorder

According to the text, social psychology has contributed to all of the following except

illusory correlation

The text suggests that clinicians may continue to have confidence in uninformative or ambiguous tests because of human susceptibility to

the bias in after-the-fact explanations

After complaining of hearing voices, David Rosenhan and his associates were diagnosed as schizophrenic and hospitalized. Clinicians' subsequent attempts to explain the diagnosis demonstrated

people who say their marriage is satisfying rarely report being unhappy or depressed

Research on the relationship between marriage and happiness indicates that

close personal relationships

When people are asked, "What is necessary for your happiness?" most mention _________________ first.

behaviors of people undergoing psychotherapy come to fit the theories of their therapists

From the material presented in the text, which of the following is an accurate statement?

are too readily convinced of their own after-the-fact analyses

Research evidence suggests that professional clinicians

they had kept their secret to themselves

Compared with university women who have experienced nonsexual traumas, sexually abused women reported more health problems especially if

lonely people tend to perceive others in negative ways

Research on loneliness indicates that

depressed were quite accurate in estimating their degree of control

When researchers had relatively depressed and nondepressed university students observe whether their pressing a button was linked with whether a light came on, the results indicated that the

visit physicians more frequently

Numerous studies have found that women ___________ than men.

depression is both a cause and a consequence of their negative thinking

Research on the social thinking of those vulnerable to depression indicates that

internal

Compared to nondepressed people, depressed people are more likely to attribute their failures and setbacks to causes that are

depression

According to Martin Seligman, the decline of religion and family and the growth of the "you can do it" idea have contributed to a large increase in

anger-prone

Research indicates that heart disease is most clearly linked with an ____________ personality.

died at younger ages

Members of baseball's Hall of Fame who offered pessimistic explanations for bad events such as losing big games

marriage

Satisfaction with _______________ seems to be the best predictor of overall happiness.

optimism

Research suggests that an attitude of ______________ is generally good for health.

spend more time talking about themselves when conversing with a stranger

In contrast to those who are not lonely, lonely people tend to

can reduce anxiety by restricting people's ability to

According to Steele and Josephs (1990), the effect of alcohol myopia is that it`

expressed higher self-esteem in private self-ratings

Students who had been induced to write self-laudatory essays

psychoanalysis

Which of the following is not given as an example of a therapy that utilizes the "attitudes-follow-behavior" principle?

may see themselves as invulnerable and thus fail to take sensible precautions

Research suggest optimists

accept credit for their successes and to note how circumstances make things go wrong

Explanatory style therapy attempts to teach depressed people to

led to credit their changed eating behavior to their own effort

Graduates of a weight-control program were more successful in maintaining their weight loss if they had been

d. none of the above

Robyn Dawes, writing In House of Cards: Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth, reports that interviewers' ratings of medical school applicants were highly predictive of the applicants'

inescapable shock

Rats injected with live cancer cells were more likely to die of tumors if they also received _______________.

hindsight bias

What error in thinking may contribute to a person's feeling of guilt after a close relative commits suicide?

social influence on the interpretation of symptoms

The epidemic that suddenly affected secondary school students during a musical performance best illustrated the impact of

half or more of all heart attack victims die before seeking or receiving medical help

Studies on people's reactions to their own physical condition indicate that

themselves

Chronically lonely people tend to blame ________________ for their poor social relationships.

health

Jones is a psychologist who specializes in the causes and control of stress. Dr. Jones is most likely a(n) _________ psychologist.

I am a poor driver and always will be.

Philip suffers from chronic depression. How is he likely to respond when told that he failed the test to renew his driver's license?

control and optimism

Mary wants advice on how to cope with the stress of a new job. She would be best advised to approach her new job with a sense of

his own motivation

As a result of participating in a program to help him quit smoking, Bill has not had a cigarette for three weeks. He is least likely to return to smoking if he attributes his success in quitting the habit to

demonstrates the sadder-but-wiser effect

Valerie is a mildly depressed university student. From the research presented in the text on depression she

the patients are perhaps induced to give information that is consistent with Gayle's theoretical orientation

Gayle, a Freudian analyst, finds that, without exception, her patients report dreams closely related to their emotional problems and are easily understood in terms of Freud's theory of personality. From research presented in the text, what may best explain why the dreams and problems of Gayle's patients are so consistent with Freudian theory?

without conflict, people seldom face and resolve their problems

Which of the following is true of conflict?

self-serving behavior leads to collective doom

The tragedy of the commons illustrates how

illustrates the tragedy of the commons

Edney's Nuts Game

both players may win, both may lose, or one may win and the other may lose

In non-zero-sum games,

smaller; more

The __________________________ the commons, the ___________________________ responsibility each person feels for it.

the opponents can communicate with one another

Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if

have proven to be helpful in reducing social dilemmas

Appeals to altruistic norms

strong; strong

People are likely to have high self-esteem if they have a ___________ ethnic identity and a ____________ mainstream cultural identity

seniority; productivity

In Japan, pay is more often based on _________ and less often based on ____________.

the offer of final-offer arbitration

According to the text, the integration of major league baseball with the arrival of Jackie Robinson included all of the following except

enough priority placed on equality to meet their own needs but also some reward for productivity

When Gregory Mitchell and his colleagues asked university students what standard of justice they would prefer if their own place on the economic ladder was unknown, they indicated that they would prefer

superordinate

Shared goals that necessitate cooperative effort are said to be

mirror-image perception

The tendency of each party to a conflict to see itself as moral and peaceloving and the other as evil and aggressive is known as

overall, racial attitudes seem to have been little affected

According to Walter Stephan's review of the research, what has been the influence of school desegregation on racial attitudes in the United States?

if it is structured to convey equal status

Contact between opposing racial groups reduces hostility

unity

Conflict between groups promotes ___________________________ within groups.

increase self-esteem, increase liking for school, improve race relations

Studies of the use of cooperative learning strategies in the schools have shown that such strategies can

jigsaw technique

Which of the following is a cooperative learning strategy used in schools?

when the conflict is over a pie that can shrink

Bargaining tough is likely to backfire

for reversing conflict through conciliation

The GRIT strategy was formulated as a plan

defects

In playing the laboratory version of Prisoner's Dilemma, a person's outcome from any given decision will be better if he or she

results much like those obtained in western cultures

When Kaori Sato used a simulated forest to study the Commons Dilemma in a communal culture, he found

people were more cooperative in their play

When Robyn Dawes and his colleagues gave people a short sermon about group benefits, exploitation, and ethics before they played a dilemma game,

may actually increase tension between the two groups if the effort is unsuccessful

A cooperative effort engaged in by two previously conflicting groups

more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships

Compared to compromises, integrative agreements are

the individuals as being representative of their group rather than as atypical

We are most likely to generalize positive interracial experiences with a few individuals to a more positive attitude toward a whole outgroup if we perceive

choosing between the final offers made by each side

In "final-offer arbitration," the third party settles a conflict by

their trust that the opposing side is well-intentioned

A key factor in determining whether people will communicate constructively and thereby correct misperceptions is

the GRIT model

The handling of the " Suez Canal crisis" by Canada's Lester B. Pearson was an application of_____________________ to international tension reduction.

a social dilemma

Two gas station owners in Roseville cut their gas prices in order to capture a portion of their competitor's business. However, neither gained any of the other's customers and in the long run both operated at a loss. This outcome best illustrates the dynamics of

an inequitable relationship

Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of

mirror-image perception

John believes he is hard-working but his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes she is hard-working but John is lazy. This is an example of

apartment dwellers install a television antenna they can all use

Which of the following best illustrates a superordinate goal?

placing White policemen on duty in predominantly Black residential neighborhoods

According to the text, contact between two conflicting racial groups can often improve relationships and correct misperceptions. Which kind of contact is, however, least likely to have that effect?

Work together on something

Sherif's studies of conflict in summer camp should lead one to suggest which of the following to a couple having marital difficulties?`

arbitration

Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of conflict they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through

individuals, groups, and nations

The GRIT model could be applied to the reduction of conflict between

low self-esteem

Anwar, a Indo-Canadian, lacks a real sense of either his Indian or his Canadian identity. Anwar is especially likely to experience

integrative agreement

Kevin and Joel, two teenage brothers, are fighting over the evening newspaper. Knowing Kevin only wants the sports section and Joel only wants the latest stock quotations, their mother takes the paper and gives each boy the section containing the news of interest. In this case the mother arrived at a(n)

Put the eyewitness on the stand, since even a discredited eyewitness is more convincing than no eyewitness at all.

A prosecuting attorney is uncertain whether her eyewitness will seem credible to the jury. The eyewitness's testimony could help win a conviction, but the witness might be discredited by the defense attorney. What advice should the prosecutor accept?

unattractive

Put the eyewitness on the stand, since even a discredited eyewitness is more convincing than no eyewitness at all.

Eyewitnesses' certainty about what they have seen is closely related to their accuracy.

Which of the following statements about eyewitness testimony is FALSE?

well educated

Research suggests that jurors in the minority will be most persuasive when they are all of the following EXCEPT

overturned a lower court ruling that death-qualified jurors are a biased sample

In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court in a split decision

larger juries more accurately recall trial testimony.

Jury researcher Michael Saks (1998) reported that

suggestive questions , an eyewitness's own retelling of events, whether the person is an eyewitness for the defendant or the plaintiff

Eyewitness testimony can be distorted or biased by which of the following?

especially when the inadmissible evidence has an emotional impact.

Jurors have difficulty "erasing" the impact of inadmissible evidence

The jury verdict is usually the alternative favored by at least two-thirds of the jurors at the outset.

What is meant by the "two-thirds-majority" scheme?

are less likely to embody a community's diversity

Research indicates that six-member juries

even when their testimony was discredited.

At the University of Washington, Loftus (1979) found that eyewitnesses in a hypothetical robbery-murder case were influential

jurors have a hard time ignoring the evidence and its influence on their deliberations.

Research shows that when a judge rules evidence to be inadmissible and admonishes the jury to ignore it

being asked the same question repeatedly

An eyewitness gains confidence from which of the following sources?`

if he or she appears similar to the one who judges.

Someone accused of a crime is judged more sympathetically

nearly always accurate

Pryke and colleagues (2004) invited students to identify a prior class visitor from multiple lineups that separately presented face, body, and voice samples. When eyewitnesses consistently identified the same suspect by face, body, and voice, he or she was

Tim, an unattractive auto mechanic, with long hair

Who among the following is likely to receive the most severe sentence for drunk driving?

Ask witnesses to scan a lineup of several suspects or mug shots simultaneously rather than one at a time.

Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for increasing the accuracy of eyewitnesses and jurors?

A ) groups do no better at recalling information from a trial than do their individual members,
B) deliberation cancels out some of the biases that contaminate individual judgments.
C) deliberation increases the likelihood that jurors will use inadmissible evidence.

Research on the effects of group deliberation by a jury suggests that

Randy, a radio announcer who appears very confident about what he saw

Of the following eyewitnesses to a crime, who would probably appear most believable to a jury?

can help us formulate theories that we can then use to interpret the more complex world.

According to the text, simulated juries

the courtroom is a miniature social world where people think about and influence each other

From the text, which of the following is a true statement regarding social psychology and the courtroom?

believed both correct and incorrect eyewitnesses most of the time

Jurors who were asked to observe and evaluate eyewitnesses to the staged theft of a University of Alberta calculator

have a poorer memory of the culprits face

Research suggests that eyewitnesses who correctly remember trivial details surrounding a crime

NONE OF THESE ARE TRUE
a. eyewitnesses who have been discredited have no influence on a jury's judgments
b. when witnessing conditions are shown to have been poor, jurors usually do not believe the eyewitness testimony
c. eyewitnesses who are shown to have poor eyesight have no effect on the jurors' judgments

Studies of the impact of eyewitness testimony indicate that

ALL OF THESE
a. by having witnesses make individual yes/no judgments in response to a sequence of people
b. with instructions that acknowledge that the offender may not be in the lineup
c. by using a lineup that contains no suspects and screening out those who make false identifications

Research has indicated that false lineup identifications can be reduced

how the physical environment of the jury room influences jurors' judgments

Which of the following is not part of the literature discussed in the text on social psychology and the courtroom?

recalled being more confident when making their initial judgment

Eyewitnesses who received confirming feedback on their testimony

the majority of students voted for conviction even if the eyesight of the eyewitness was called into question

When students were presented with a hypothetical robbery-murder with circumstantial evidence but no eyewitness testimony, only 18 percent voted for conviction. With the addition of eyewitness testimony to the circumstantial evidence,

the majority made a wrong identification

Buckhout (1974) had students witness an assault on a professor. Seven weeks later, the students, when asked to identify the assailant from a group of six photographs,

ALL OF THESE
a. a yield sign was actually a stop sign
b. a red light was actually green
c. a robber had a moustache when he did not

Research on memory construction indicates that suggestive questioning can lead people to believe that

increases their confidence about what they saw, even if they were wrong

Research indicates that having eyewitnesses rehearse their answers to questions before taking the witness stand

jurors become more likely to trust such testimony

When experts provide jurors information on the conditions under which eyewitness accounts are trustworthy

four times in five the judge concurs with the jury's decision

Research comparing juries' decisions with those made by a judge has indicated that

less likely to be found guilty and if found guilty receive less punishment

Research on the physical attractiveness of defendants has indicated that physically attractive defendants are

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