the scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
anything any organism does, any action we can observe and record.
internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior.
the phony or unscientific psychology which pretends to be the real thing.
psychologists who do basic research in psychology.
Teachers of Psychology
psychologists who teach psychology.
this group uses the knowledge developped by experimental psychologists to address human problems.
hold MD's and have specialized training in the treatment of behavior and mental problems.
ancient greek philosopher-teacher who believed that mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies, and that knowledge is innate- born within us.
student of Socrates, shared the same ideas. (body and mind are separate, knowledge is innate).
student of Plato, who believed that the soul is not separable from the body, and that knowledge is not pre-existing, but it grows from the experiences stored in our memories.
17th century french philosopher who believed that human sensations and behaviors were based on activity in the nervous system.
17th century british philosopher who was fascinated by the human mind and its failings.
british philosopher who believed that the mind is "a blank slate on which experience writes."
the idea that knowledge originates in experience and that science should be based on observation and experimentation.
created first psychology lab in Germany in 1879. He hoped to examine basic cognitive structures through the use of introspection.
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings.
student of Wilhelm Wundt. Introduced structuralism.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the mind.
created the theory of functionalism. He examined how the structures identified by Wundt functioned in our lives.
a theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.
the opposite of structuralism. Instead of dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures, this wave of psychology tried to examine the whole human experience.
gestalt psychologist. Believed that the whole of an experience is not simply the sum of it's parts.
revolutionized psychology with his psychoanalytic theory.
wave of psychology introduced by Freud that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control, that determines in part how we think and behave.
the pushing down into our unconscious mind the events and feelings that cause so much anxiety and tension that our conscious minds cannot deal with them.
pioneered the study of learning.
studied Pavlov's experiences and introduced Behaviorism.
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include reinforcement.
environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses.
explains human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes. According to this view, our behavior is a result of heredity, the nervous system, and the endocrine system.
this perspective examines human thoughts and behavior in terms of natural selection.
responsible for the principle of natural selection.
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely passed on to succeeding generations.
this perspective emphasizes changes that occur across our lifespan.
Nature vs. Nurture
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
this perspective examines human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events.
psychologists using this perspective believe that the unconscious mind controls much of our thought and action.
a perspective which emphasizes human ability, growth, potential and free will. Psychologists using this perspective believe that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs.
humanist who created Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
humanist who, along with Maslow, stressed individual choice and free will.
perspective which finds the source of our actions in the environmental stimuli, rather than through mental processes. Explains human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning.
perspective which looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures.