Great Britian - Parlimintary Democracy
Two party parlimentary democracy. People elect representatives to serve in parliment. Two major parties are the Liberals and the Conservatives.
Working Class supported the Liberal party
Emerged in 1900 - dedicated to workers and workd for social reforms, unemployment benefits, and old-age pensions
France - Third Republic
After the fall of Louis-Napoleon's Second Empire left the country in confusion.
1875 formed a republican constitution with President and Legislature with two houses.
Upper house = Senate - conservative and elected by high ranking officials
Lower house = Chamber of Deputies were elected by voters (adult males)
Italy - United National State
There was little national unity due to the great gulf between the wealth of the industrialized north and the poverty stricken south.
Imperial Germany had a constitution and a two-house legislature.
Lower house = Reichstag - elected by adult males
Ministers were responsible to the emperor who controlled military, foreign policy and bureacracy
Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister (Chancellor) of Germany 1871 - worked against democracy in spite of pressure from the people
Emperor of Germany while von Bismarck was Prime Minister (aka Chancellor) 1888 to 1918 grew Germany into a strong military force
Dual Monarchy. Austria set up a parlimintary system that was ignored by the emperor, Francis Joseph
Hungary parlimentary system worked and was controlled by landowners
Emperor of Austria-Hungrary. Appointed ministers and declared laws when parliment was not in session.
Ruled by Czars - central authoritarian government
Began his rule as a Russian Czar in 1894. Believed the absolute power of the Czar should be preserved
Industrialism in Russia
Growing industrialization and factories in Russia created a large workforce. Socialist parties developed to represent worker rights. Workers marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (Bloody Sunday)
January 22, 1905 - Massive procession of workers to the Winter Palace of the Czar to present grievances. Troops open fire on a peaceful demonstration killing hundreds
Nicholas II was forced to grant civil liberties and created a legislative assembly called the Duma. By 1907 Czar reduced the power of the Duma and Czar controlled bureaucracy and army.
United States Economy after Civil War
Economy moved from farm-based to industrial. Steel and iron production the best in the world
Queen of Hawaii in 1800's. American controlled the sugar industry in Hawaii. US Military forces deposed the Queen and annexed Hawaii in 1898.
US defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War and acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
The Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy - joined together in case France wanted to form an anti-german alliance.
William II - 1890
Fired Bismarck and moved to enhance German power. Dropped alliance with Russia. France immediately joined with Russia placing hostle parties on both German borders.
Alliance of Russia, Great Britain and France
Austria-Hungary and Russia
Rivalry over the Balkins was one cause of WWI
1908 - Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia was outraged, since they had wanted Bosnia and Herzegovina to form a large Serbian Kingdom. Russia backed Serbia, Germany backed Austria-Hungary.