King of England who had a scandal filled court, advocated divine right, ended war with Spain, and rarely called Parliament.
Had many problems with Parliament funding war efforts. Tried to get around Parliament but eventually led to the English Civil war with the King's army vs. the Parliament army.
The tax that Charles I tried to levy without the consent of Parliament. Could be paid in actual ships or the equivalent.
Petition of Right (1629)
Petition from Parliament that listed rights that the king could not infringe on. Passed during Charles I's reign, one of the events that led up to the English civil War.
Supporter of Charles I who disliked radical forms of Puritanism. He was beheaded during the English Civil War because of his support of Charles I.
John Pym (the Covenant)
Leader of the Long Parliament who was a big critic of James I and Charles I.
Took over England after the Civil War. Wasn't a monarch but pleased Parliament.
What the Parliament army from the English Civil War was called.
What King Charles I army from the English Civil War was called.
Even that refers to when Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed the Long Parliament.
The name of the Parliament after Col. Pride purged the long Parliament.
What the republic of England, Scotland, and Ireland was called. Took place after the English Civil War when the country didn't want a monarchy.
The restoration of the monarchy after Oliver Cromwell's rule. This took place while Charles II was in power.
Monarch that followed Oliver Cromwell. England went back to the way things had previously been before the Civil War with CII. Passed many religious legislation.
Declaration of Indulgence (both)
The first one suspended the laws against Catholics but had to be voided because Charles II couldn't get money from Parliament unless D of I was voided. The second one said that royalty could attack local authority.
Laws against Catholics that generally outlawed Catholicism.
Oath against transubstantiation (belief that communion is body of Christ)
Followed Charles II, removed a lot of religious tests and virtually created religious freedom. But he appointed Catholics to high positions.
Glorious Revolution 1688
When Mary and William send an army to England and took t he throne from James II. It was called "glorious" because no one was killed.
William and Mary
Took the throne from James II by sending forces in and driving him out. They agreed to rule with the consent of
Bill of Rights
Limited the power of the monarchy and guaranteed civil liberties to the upper class.
Toleration Act 1689
Only allowed Protestants in England (Church of England), outlawed Catholicism.
Parlements were regional judicial courts, while the Estates General was their main parliament with smaller provincial estates.
had strong anti-Hasbsburg policy-used centralization policies. Attacked disobedient nobles, and fought and took away rights from Huguenots.
continued Richelieu's centralizing policies.
a series of rebellions among French nobles opposing the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin.
Absolutist ruler over the superpower France who after experiencing the Fronde as a child believed in controlling the nobles and being a strong king. Achieved a wealthy country with a strong administration and a strong military.
palace built by Louis for nobles to live in. Established many, many ceremonial acts (i.e. dressing of the king) and rules of etiquette to keep the nobles busy-when concentrated on having good manners, etc., they had less time to plot against the king. Intendants-Appointed offices. Ensured that the office holder was loyal to the king. Opposite of venality-offices could not be sold or bought.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis's economic minister who controlled revenue within the country. Used book keeping and audits, once commercial code for the whole country and was successful in centralization, rationalization and mercantilism.
wealth=gold and silver. The goal was to get as much of it as you can. The French did so by exporting, not importing, reducing internal tariffs, building roads and canals, and promoting production experts.
Jansenists vs. Jesuits
Jesuits were gaining power through education and advice, while the Jansenists were Calvinistic Catholics against Jesuit theology and power. Louis eventually banned Jansenism in 1660, and many either converted or went underground.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 1685
Louis began reducing the rights of Huguenots until finally in 1685 revoke the Edict of Nantes. The Huguenots had to either convert or leave, with the majority of them fleeing to more tolerant countries.
War of Devolution 1667
War against Dutch with English and Swedish. Ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) giving Louis control of towns bordering the Sp. Netherlands.
Dutch War 1672
1678-France and England under a secret alliance (Treaty of Dover) against the Dutch along with HRE, Spain, Lorraine and Brandenburg. Ended in the Peace of Nijmwegen (1678-9) with France gaining more land including the Franche-Comte.
War of the League of Augsburg 1688
1697-the Dutch, English, HRE, Swedish and Spanish were worried about the already superpower France gaining even more power, against the French. Ended in the Peace of Ryswick (1697), which stopped Louis's expansion into Germany.
Charles II of Spain "El Hechizado"
mentally retarded and incapable leader. After Charles left a will giving all of Spanish possession to Louis's grandson, Philip, the Dutch and English refused, sparking the War of Spanish Succession.
War of Spanish Succession 1701
1714-After Charles II died and left Spain with Philip, Louis's grandson, France and Spain went into battle with England and their coalition which included Great Britain, Prussia and a few others. Ended in 1713 with the Peace of Utrecht
FW "The Great Elector"
created the Prussian military from 2,000- 30,000. He also connected Prussia to the Dutch through his wife. With this, he created an ally not only with them, but with the Calvinists.
Nobles in Prussia that cooperated with the king, they didn't have to pay taxes, and they ruled over serfs on their land. They got this right to rule over the serfs in exchange for their obedience to the king.
The Junker- Crown Cooperation
The crown gave prestige to the junkers through military service. This in turn, produced loyalty within the junkers to their king. The junker officers were still able to rule over serf soldiers as if they were on their estate.
East Prussia- Brandenburg- Mark/Ravensburg/Cleves
Originally separated During the 30 Years' War, Prussia must unite and conquest these three territories. With these being conquered, Prussia held a significant amount of land within the Holy Roman Empire and it these territories become second in size to that of the Habsburgs.
Frederick III a.k.a. King Frederick I
He was incompetent compared to his father. He fought numerous times against King Louis XIV. He gave the Prussian army to the Holy Roman Emperor (Leopold) and in return was granted "King in Prussia." Instead of building the military and establishing the economy, he built palaces and universities. He spent their money on living luxuriously.
Frederick William I
Reduced the budget, leaving a surplus. He dismissed 50% of the court. But his greatest accomplishment was building the number three ranked army in Prussia. Under him, it grew from 39,000 to over 80,000. He united the army, Junker nobility, and the monarchy into a single political entity. With this, more Junker's sons were attracted to it and the military became the best army in Europe. However, even with this, Frederick was able to avoid conflict. He united all of Prussia with the military.
Importance of trade
Major source of income for the dutch people. Established Dutch East Indies Company (chartered 1602). Overcame portugese domination of spice trade industry in Asia and prevented English from presiding there. Eventually they began to produce spices themselves.
Tolerant religious policy
Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church with a Catholic minority, but also toleration for jews and others. Instead of trying to impose one faith on everyone, different Dutch people lived together peacefully.
Bank of Amsterdam
First national bank; provided guaranteed security. Collected and exchanged all $, including bills of trade. Had low interest rates for Gov't so it also helped to fund wars.
Central national republican assembly or form of gov't (kind of a parliament?) with no monarch. Met in the Hague and maintained control through negotiations with provinces. Mostly dominated by Holland (Williams of Orange).
The elected executive of a province. Often times all provinces elected same Stadholder, and they became the United Stadholder—their power increased/decreased with the threat facing the country. (House of Orange)
Laws by English to cut Dutch trade. One of the causes of the downfall of the Netherlands and the Anglo-Dutch wars
3 Wars between English and Dutch that occurred between 1652-1672 over control over seas and trade routes.
Wars vs. Louis XIV
3 Wars that occurred between 1667-1697. "War of Devolution" (1667-1668) over who would take the throne of the Spanish Netherlands. "French War against the Netherlands" (1672-1679) France and England ally through Treaty of Dover and attack Dutch. "War of League of Augsburg" aka "9 Years' War" (1688-1697) eventually secures Holland's borders and stops expansion into Germany.
War of Spanish Succession
1701-1713 between france and England, Holland, HRE about who would become King of Spain after Charles (retard) left no heir. Spain is split
William III of Orange
Is asked to succeed James II b/c of his wife Mary being James's protestant oldest daughter, and also English want to preserve Anglican Church and Parliament. Rules instead of Jame's son. Together they are William and Mary (like the school)
The Diet (Sejm)
A collection of Nobles and specifically excluded representatives from corporate bodies, such as the towns. They would come together to elect the king. However, they rarely accomplished anything due to the distrust and divisions within themselves. Therefore, they would always (except for one, Sobieski) elect a foreigner.
Liberum Veto- Exploding the Diet
Nobles were granted the right to disband the body. This would mostly occur if one was bribed by a foreign power. Exploding the diet was done by a group of dissatisfied nobles.
Noble Liberty- Chaos
There was no army, no law courts, no revenue, and in the end really no parliament because they could never come to a unanimous vote. This eventually led to Poland disappearing from the map of Europe later on.
John III Sobieski 1683
Rescued Vienna from the Turks. This was his greatest success. He was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. He was a military genius. From the battle of Vienna he was told, "Savior of Vienna and Western European civilization."
Each controlled by Habsburg families in different ways. Habsburgs were the only thing that connected all of them, and therefore made unification very difficult. In all of them the Habsburgs ruled with the nobility. Bohemia=Catholic supreme (crushed Protestantism); Austria=Purely Catholic; Hungary=Calvinist nobility
Thirty Years' War (results)
The HRE is decentralized and there is religious disunity. Disunity overall: different countries, people, languages, currency, etc.
Wars vs. Turks
From 1529-1683 Turks gain land. Finally, in 1683, Vienna is besieged and then rescued and the Habsburgs begin to win.***
Turkish Hungarian people. Cause problems when trying to centralize HRE***
Leopold I (r.1658-1705)
Emperor of the the HRE during the time of Louis XIV's reign.
War of Spanish Succession
Fought with Holland and England against the rising superpower of France. Ended up getting land and causing France to lose some territory/power.
Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy
Two lands gained by the Habsburg empire after the War of Spanish Succession. Kinda nice and fancy places to get! Yay!
Last Habsburg male to rule. Ends up dying without a male heir to the throne, which causes problems in the empire.
Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
aka "Practical Solution", Charles decrees that if he doesn't have a male heir before his death, the throne will go to his oldest daughter, Maria Theresa. Policy ends up being ignored ***?
Peter the Great, after the Great Embassy tried to westernize Russia. It succeeded in the following categories of clothing, shaving, etiquette, education, gender mingling, free foreigners, and attempts at religion.
The Great Embassy
Peter the Great went to Western Europe to explore the culture. This in turn inspired him to try and amend Russia into becoming more like Europe. He received new ideas and came up with new strategies for the military, weapons, political structure, building structure, social classes, and a new general idea of culture itself. This trip was cut short due to an attempt to over throw him. Peter had gone on the trip to also acquire alliances, but failed to do so.
Became the new capital of Russia (from Moscow). It became more like Europe. It was even chosen because of its view/ look to the west. Foreigners were welcome there. Noblemen were forced to build houses there. It became the symbol of New Russia. However, thousands were conscripted and died.
Table of Ranks
This was the table set up by Peter the Great for nobles to aspire to. Instead of nobles getting higher in the political and social spectrum based on lineage, a lot of it began to depend on rank in the military etc. New nobles were created and he favored meritocracy for the rank. A noble would sometimes spend their whole life moving up a rank.
These were the corrupt palace guards that revolted against Peter the Great while he was on the Great Embassy. They were soon replaced by a professional army.
Senate and Colleges
Both of these diffused power between nobles, non-nobles, and a foreigner. These were adopted for the bureaucracy of the new government.
10 bishops overseen by a civilian procurator replaced the corrupt Patriarch.
They did not believe in any of the changes. Nikan to them was the antichrist. Therefore, they locked themselves into wooden churches and set themselves on fire. They did not want to become orthodox and they were against the westernization.
Great Northern War (Narva and Poltava)
Both against Sweden for territory. They lost to a significantly smaller army at Narva and then won in Poltava years later.
322 BCE)-the official pagan philosopher of the church who believed in no experimentation-you should find the essence of something and then anticipate how they would act. Also believed all matter was made up of either earth, fire, water, or air.
168 CE)- wrote The Almagest, a book on astronomy. Believed in a motionless Earth surrounded by concentric spheres and a geocentric universe.
200 CE)-believed in 4 humors that made up your personality: blood, phlegm, choler and black choler. He thought the balance of humors was key to your health and used leeches, purgatives, laxatives, etc. to try to balance them. Studied the external of monkeys and internals of pigs to try to gain understanding on the human body.
Reality is only part of the true reality. Math is needed throughout the world.
Galen—Blood: Sanguine. Phlegm: Phlegmatic. Choler: Choleric. Black choler: Melancholy. With these, people were able to understand your personalities based on the combinations of these.
the study of influence of the stars on human behavior.
to make predictions of events from combinations of numbers
the use of fire to purify base metals and turn them into gold.
A belief that begins with the rediscovery of Hermes Trismegistus (2nd c. Greek). Believed that he knew the secrets of the universe, and attempted to discover universal spirit present in all objects that would spontaneously reveal itself. Believed math and music to be perfect disciplines.
transferred Ptolemaic model to a heliocentric (sun-centered, aka solar system) model. Famous work is: On The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres. Believed that God wouldn't create a chaotic system. Though his system was just as inaccurate as Ptolemy's, he provided future scientists with a new way of addressing the problems of Ptolemy's system.
Danish astronomer that worked on an island that was his solely for the purpose of his observatories—which he ran like "a little Hitler". Recorded positions of stars, planets, etc...and eventually went to work for HRE Rudolf. (p.s. he was kinda crazy...had a pet moose and everything...)
Math genius that took advantage of all of Brahe's data. He held mystic beliefs that planets corresponded to some music-math-religious order (God song? Wait what?!) Eventually made 3 laws of planetary motion-1. Elliptical orbits 2. Planets change speed 3. Time to orbit is related to distance from sun
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Scientist that did a little of everything—improved Dutch telescope and trained it on the sky (uh-oh...pervert...found 4 moons of Jupiter-Medicis-and discovered that moon was rough not crystalline). Also created original law of inertia. Persecuted by church for his Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World (1632)...recanted.
1727)-used Copernicus' universe, Kepler's math and Galileo's physics and experimentation all combined. He was a math genius-created calculus, and interested in the idea of Neo-Platonism. Published Principia in 1687 sharing his ideas of gravity over animus (the planets want to move).
Francis Bacon (1561
1626)-advocated the scientific method-believed experiments were reliable and repeatable. Wanted science to benefit a country, and believed in openness.
Rene Descartes (1596
1650) -Math genius who wrote Discourse on Method in 1637. Doubted everything, but used 'cogito ergo sum' and deductive reasoning to prove scientific laws.
1551)-alchemist and physician against the humors and elements theories. Believed all matter to be made up of salt sulfur and mercury. First doctor to have patients ingest chemicals to cure diseases.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
Was a philosopher, physicist, chemist, and inventor. He is best know for Boyles Law which describes the inversely proportional relationship between pressure and volume of gas.
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Wrote one of the most influential human anatomy books (De Humani Corporis fabrica) and was considered the father of modern human anatomy.
William Harvey (1578-1657)
Was favored by Hobbes and discovered that blood Circulates through the body.
Societies of the sciences where ideas were discussed and experiments conducted. They would meet regularly and discuss papers and well as observe experiments. It gave credit to those deserved.
Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1661-1717)
extremely intelligent scientist who wrote 3 books. Was allowed entrance to a meeting of the Royal Society . Significant because women were never taken seriously and often had to do their work through men in order to be listened to.
Ėmile du Châtelet (1706-1749)
extremely bright woman who assisted Voltaire in the mathematics of his book. She also translated Newton's Principia into French.