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Clause

group of words that contains a verb and its subject

Independent Clause

expresses a single thought and can stand by itself as a sentence
Ex: The eighth graders made their teachers proud in Washington, DC.

Subordinate Clause

does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. The meaning is complete only when it is attached to something else.
Ex:The eighth graders made us proud when they behaved so well on the trip.

Adjective Clause

a subordinate(dependent) clause that modifies a noun or pronoun
Ex: The Kennedy Center is the place where we say the hilarious play, Shear Madness.

Which one or what kind

An adjective clause follows the word(s) it modifies and tells ______ or _______

Relative Pronoun/Adverb

An adjective clause is usually introduced by a _____ ________ or a ________ _________.

Who, whom, whose, which, that

Five Relative Pronouns

When and Where

Two Relative Adverbs

Essential Adjective Clause

provides information that is necessary to the meaning of the sentence; not set off by commas
Ex: HH Girls, who do not like Starbucks seem to be nonexistent.

Nonessential Clause

provides additional information that can be omitted; always set off by commas.
Ex: HH Girls, whose feet were aching by the end of each day, never complained about all the walking we did on our trip.

Adverb Clause

a subordinate(dependent) clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
Ex. The students will miss their stop if they don't pay attention to the announcements on the metro.

How, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what condition

What are the six questions an adverb clause answers?

Subordinating Conjunction

An adverb clause is introduced by a __________ ___________.

Comma

An adverb clause that introduces a sentence is followed by a ______.

Independent Clause

The comma is omitted when the adverb clauses follows an _________ ___________.

Elliptical Clause

adverb clause in which part of it may be omitted when the meaning is understood
Ex: We liked the new hotel better than we liked the old one.

Noun Clause

a subordinate clause used as a noun

IO, PN, OP, DO, Subject

A noun clause may be used as __,__,__,__,__.

Subject

Whoever roomed with Jill on the trip was lucky because her mom makes delicious treats!

PN

Our hope was that we would see President Obama while we were in our nation's capitol.

DO

Mrs. Johnson's group learned that the hand dryers in the American Indian Museum bathroom were powerful.

IO

Mrs. Smith assigned whoever got her forms in first the penthouse suite in the hotel.

OP

Eighth graders always tells stories about what they saw across the street from the White House.

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