A language use that distinguishes between in-group and out-group members.
Any of the words whose historical [ae] vowel has been changed to "a" in British and New England speech
A variety of language used for a particular purpose or in particular circumstances. For example, when speaking in a formal setting a speaker uses prescribed grammar, e.g. "walking", not "walkin'", and chooses more formal words e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.
a prestigious language variety described in dictionaries and grammars, taught in schools, used for public affairs, and having no regional limitations.
Uninflected "be" used for habitual or regular action in several varieties of nonstandard English.
A reduced language combining features from several languages and used for special purposes among persons who share no other common language.
Meaning or study of language
A linguistic philosophy emphasizing the arbitrary nature of language
The origin and history of a word, also the study of word origins and history
Change in the meaning of an expression
The referential meaning of an expression
transfer of meaning
a semantic change altering the kinds of referents of a word as by metaphor, metonymy, etc.
A semantic change worsening the associations of a word
A semantic change improving the associations of a word.
A semantic change shifting the meaning of a word because the old and new referents are associatied with each other, eg. "suit" for "business executive," or "rifles" for "foot soldiers."
A semantic change shifting the meaning of a word by associating impressions from one sense with sensations from another, eg. "warm color."
A semantic change shifting the meaining of a word by using a more inclusive term for a less inclusive one or vice versa, for example, the whole for a part ("society" for "socially prominent people"), a part for the whole ("hand" for "worker"), the genus for a species, a species for the genus, or a material for something made from it ("iron" for "instrument for pressing").
calque / loan translation
An expression made by combining forms that individually translate the parts of a foreign combination, eg. "trial blloon" from French "balloon d'essai."
A semantic change shifting the meaning of a word through association with another word of similar sound, as "fruition" ME "enjoyment" > ModE "completion" by association with "fruit."
A word in fashionable or faddish use
The presence of semantic limitations in the meaning of a word
A word whose meaning lacks a semantic limitation present in marked words, as "horse" is vague for sex, whereas "stallion" and "mare" indicate sex.