# Praxis ii Math

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### Units of Length

Inches, Feet, Yards, Miles 1 Foot = 12 in. 1 yard = 36 in. or 3 feet, 1 mile = 5,280 feet or 1,760 yd. (Metric system - Meters)

### Units of Weight

Ounces, Pounds, Ton 1 (lb.) = 16 (oz.) 1 ton (T.) = 2,000 (lbs.)

### Volume

Is measured in cubes and is the amount of cubes that is required to fill the object completely.

### Volume of Rectangle

lwh (length width height)

a(3)

bh (Base Height)

1/3b*h

### Volume of Cylinder

π r^2h (3.14 or 22/7 radius squared height)

### Volume of Cone

1/3πr^2h (3.14 radius squared height all over 3 or divided by 3)

### Area Rectangle

lw (length*width)

### Area Triangle

1/2 bh (base*height divided by 2)

### Area Square

s^2 (side squared)

(π )r^2

### Angle

consists of two rays. The two rays are the sides of the angle. Angles are measured in degrees

### Acute Angle

Any angle that is less than 90 degrees but greater than zero degrees

### Obtuse Angle

Any angle that is greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees

### Right Angle

Any angle measuring exactly 90 degrees. Two lines that meet at a right angle are said to be perpendicular.

### Complimentary Angle

When two angles are measured, the sum of their degrees is equal to 90 degrees. (ex. 30 degree angle and 60 degree angle = 90 degrees)

### Supplementary Angle

When two angles are measured, the sum of their degrees is equal to 180 degrees (straight line). (ex. two perpendicular right angles 90 degrees and 90 degrees)

### Units of Time

Seconds, Minutes, House, Days, Weeks, Months, Years. 1 min = 60 seconds. 1 hr = 60 minutes 1 day = 24 hours 1 wk. = 7 days 1 year = 52 weeks or 12 months or 365 days

### Rates & Distance

Rate explains a relationship btw pair of #'s. To find the rate = distance/time.
time = distance/rate
distance = rate*time

### Metric Unit Prefixes

King Henry Doesn't Usually Drink Chocolate Milke
Kilo-(0.001 largest), Hecto-(0.01), Deka-(0.1) Unit (Base or 1), Deci-(10), Centi (100), and Milli-(1000)

### Converting metric units

Convert 68.94 cm to kilometers (there are 5 units between cm to km) move decimal point 5 spaces to the left = 0.0006894km

### Metric units

Grams (weight), Meters (length or distance), Liters (volume/capacity)

### Informal Geometry

provides students with the concepts and skills necessary for: finding the perimeter, area, surface area and volume of common geometric figures; graphing equations on the coordinate system and deriving the equation for the third line from a pair of points: using the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems involving right triangles; determining if triangles are similar and finding an unknown side in similar triangles; and determining unknown angles in figures by calculating the sum of the interior angles.

### Coordinate Geometry

Determine the distance between them
Find the midpoint, slope and equation of a line segment. Determine if lines are parallel or perpendicular. Find the area and perimeter of a polygon defined by the points.Transform a shape by moving, rotating and reflecting it.Define the equations of curves, circles and ellipses.

x-axis

y-axis

### Origin of coordinate graph

where the x & y axis intersect on the perpendicular lines

### Coordinate grid

uses numbers to locate points. Each point is identified by an ordered pair of numbers: x and y coordinates. The x coordinate is ALWAYS written first and then the y coordinate (x,y).

### Parts of two-dimensional figures

Edges - sides or arcs of figure that are one-dimensional. Vertices - end points or corners of figure which are zero dimensional. Angles - when two sides meet at a vertex measured in degrees.

### Two-dimensional Figures

Also called plane figures, is a set of lined segments (sides) and/or curved segments (arcs) lying within a single plane.

### What shaped are two-dimensional figures?

Triangle (equilateral, isosceles, right, scalene), Rhombus, Square, Rectangle, Trapezoid, Kite, Chevron, Ellipse, Circle, Parallelogram, polygons

### Three-dimensional figures are?

Sphere, ovoid, cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, ellipsoid, polyhedrons

### Polygon

2 dimensional figure where all edges are segments, every vertex is the end point of two or more edges, no two sides cross each other. They are named and classified according to the number of sides they possess (= vertices). Can be both regular (all sides and angles equal) or irregular (unequal sides and angles)

### Common Polygons

Triangle (3 sides), Quadrilateral (4), Pentagon (5), Hexagon (6), Heptagon (7), Octagon (8), Nonagon (9), Decagon (10)

### Polyhedrons

3 dimensional figures in which all faces are plane regions, every edge is the edge of two faces, every vertex is the vertex of three or more faces, no two faces cross each other. Classified by faces.

### Common Polyhedrons

Tetrahedron (4 faces), Cube (6), Octahedron (8), Dodecahedron (12), Icosahedron (18)

### Pythagorean Theorem

Used to explain the lengths of the sides of a RIGHT Triangle. Two legs (a and b) squared yield the length of the hypotenuse (c) given any two values of the the three, the third can be found. a^2+b^2=c^2

### Equalities

Equations that are the same on both sides without having to solve either side. 6 properties of equalities.

### Properties of equalities

1.) Reflexive property - Any number is equal to itself (x=x) 2.) Symmetric property - If one number is equal to another number, then vice versa (If x=y, then y=x) 3.) Transitive property - If one number is equal to another number that number is equal to a third number, then the first and third numbers are equal (If x=y and y=z then x=z) 4.) Substitution property - If two numbers are equal, then they are interchangable in any situation (x=y so x may be replaced by y or x=y+z so x may be replaced with y+z) 5.) Addition & Subtraction property - If two numbers are equal, then they will remain equal if the same value is added to or subtracted from them (If x=y, then x+z=y+z or x-z=y-z) 6.) Multiplication and division property - If two numbers are equal, then they will remain equal if they are multiplied or divided by the same number (If x=y, then xz=yz or x/z=y/z)

### Inequalities

Any math problem containing <, ≤, >, ≥ is called an inequality. Solutions to inequalities are any numbers that make the inequalities true.

When the same quality is added or subtracted to both sides of an inequality, the truth of the inequality does not change. If a>b, then a+c is > b+c

### Multiplication principle for inequalities

If a>b and c is positive, then ac>bc.
If a>b, and c is negative, then ac<bc.

the opposite number or the number that when added to (n) results in a sum of zero. (Ex. addictive inverse of x is -x; Additive inverse of 0.13 is -0.13) To calculate the additive inverse of a number, multiply the number by -1. (n*-1=-n).

### Multiplicative Inverse

is the reciprocal or a number that when multiplied by n results in the product of 1. (Ex. Multi. inverse of x is 1/x or x^-1. Multi inverse of 6 is 1/6 or 6^-1 (because 61/6=1). Multi inverse of 0.25 is 4 (because .254=1)).

### Energy

is necessary to do work. There are two types: 1.) Potential Energy - which could do work if released. (Ex. A ball resting at the top of a steep hill) 2.) Kinetic Energy - Is doing work or is occurring. (Ex. Ball rolling down the hill)

### Work

when an object is moved through a distance in response to some force; energy is transferred from one object to another. W=fr (Work= force x distance)

### Power

The rate of doing work

### Force & motion

Forces that cause change in motion of objects (newton's first law) are gravity, friction, air resistance, pushing, pulling, and throwing.

### Gravity

Acceleration of objects toward the center of the earth (force that causes change to motion of objects)

### Inertia

is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. (force that causes change to motion of objects)

### Friction

The force between any two objects that come into contact with one another. Friction cannot be eliminated. (Ex. parachute in air) (force that causes change to motion of objects)

### Categories of Energy

Heat, Sound, Light, Magnetism, Mechanical, Electric, Chemical, Nuclear. All of these forms can be changed into another form without the loss of ANY energy.

### Heat

Can be produced in many ways, all of which cause an increase in the motion of particules of a substance

### Conduction

Heat moves from warmer areas to cooler areas along materials that conduct heat (ex. wire and rod)

### Convection

Heat is transfered through collisions of molecules and occurs ONLY in liquids and gases as they circulate.

Heat is transmitted in the form of infrared radiation and occurs ONLY in gases and empty space.

### Sound

is controlled by vibrations. The speed of sound depend on the space between the molecules. It travels quickest through solids and slowest through gases.

### Rules of Sounds

The more rapid the vibration, the higher the pitch. Sound travels through solids, liquids, and gases. Objects produce sound by causing a series of compressions and rare fractions (wave) of molecules.

### Wave

Longitudinal movement in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source.

### Wavelength

The distance between two successive compressions or two successive rare fractions.

### Pitch

How high or low the sound which is caused by the rate of the vibration

### Amplitude

Loudness or volume of sound caused by force use to create the sound (the greater the force, the louder the sound)

### Quality

A distinctive timbre caused the source of the sound

### Light

Travels through anything that is transparent or translucent

### Rules of light

Travels in rays (straight lines). The more dense the object or medium, the slower the light travels. Travels in transverse ways. Is an electromagnetic wave that is created by causing the electron to move rapidly and emit energy.

### Transverse Wave

Has a series of crests and troughs (ex. dropping pebble in water)

### Wavelength

The distance between the crest or the distance between the troughs.

### Reflection

Caused by light rays bouncing off of a surface

### Refraction

Caused by the bending of light rays as they passed from one medium to another.

### Magnetism

Involves magnets, which have two poles (north, south). The rules are similar poles (N-N, S-S) repel and opposite poles (N-S, S-N) attract

### Electricity

Is a kind of energy that can produce heat, light, motion, and magnetic force. Electricity flows through a conductor as current. Like charges repel (++. --) opposite charges attract (+-, -+)

### Electric Current

contains an electrical energy and a conductor

### Conductor

is a material that allows electric current to flow through it (ex. copper, gold, aluminum, silver)

### Insulators

Material that does not allow electric current to flow through it (ex. wood, rubber, plastic)

### Voltage

the amount of force of the current

### Amperage

amount of electricity that flows through a conductor.

### Resistance

causes electron flow to do the work and decreases flow of amperage in a circuit.

### Circuit

the path that an electric current flows.

### Types of circuits

Series - The resistances are connected to one another, one following another. If one resistance is disconnected, the circuit fails to work. Parallel - Ea. resistance is connected to the main circuit with its own connections. If one is disconnected the others still work.

### Guided Discovery

(suggested use in Math and Science and social studies) The student recieves problems to solve, but the teacher provides hints and directions about how to solve the problemto keep the student on track. Guided discovery both encourages learners to search actively for how to apply rules and makes sure that the learner comes into contact with the rule to be learned.

### Authentic Assessments

Alternatives to traditional exams. Performance tasks, observation, journal writing, and portfolios (daily use and non-threatening to children)

Require that students complete a problem or project, which includes an explanation for the answer and addresses a particular skill. (assessment - authentic)

### Observation

A simple method of assessment to identify the performance of students completing various activities and tasks, using anecdotal records, and checklists for recording documentaries.

### Journal Writing

Written reflections allow teachers to informally gauge student learning through their thinking processes, formation of ideas, and development of skills in creative and factual writing.

### Portfolios

A collection of completed student work selected by student and teacher to demonstrate strengths, progress, and skills.

Paper and pencil tasks such exams

### Achievement test

Formal tool used to measure student proficiency of a subject area already learned. Under No Child Left Behind, achievement tests have taken on an additional role of assessing proficiency of students. Proficiency is defined as the amount of grade-appropriate knowledge and skills a student has acquired up to the point of testing. Better teaching practices are expected to increase the amount learned in a school year, and therefore to increase achievement scores, and yield more "proficient" students than before.

### Anecdotal record

Informal measurement based on observation of student work or performance

### Aptitude test

Formal measurement of standardized or norm-referenced tests to evaluate student ability to acquire skills or gain knowledge. An aptitude test is a test which is designed to predict the test-taker's future success. Rather than testing knowledge, aptitude tests are designed to test innate skills and the capacity for learning and acquiring new skills.

### Criterion-referenced test

Formal measure that evaluates a student on certain subject area information by answering specific questions while not comparing one student to another. The objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material. (Ex. High School Graduation Exam, Licensure for profession exams)

### Norm-referenced test

Formal standardized evaluation used to compare a student to other peers in the same age group and aids in developing curriculum options. (Ex. SAT, GRE)

### Rubric

A set standard rating scale used to determine performance abilities on a single task (1=weak connection 2=some known information 3= etc)

### Retellings

Retelling is a comprehension strategy that allows students to process important story elements. Focus lessons in this unit of study familiarize students with sequencing story events and identifying important story Components. Students retelling story orally or in writing, oral especially useful with emergent readers. They retell story in their own words. Afterwards the teacher prompts them by asking ?'s.

### Spelling tests

Assessment (phonics) not used as commonly for assessment. I read that some schools don't even give spelling test anymore. Instead, most use spelling inventories tests, administered in the same way but students do not study their spelling words ahead of time and they are not graded. Used as an assessment of students' spelling development.

### Non-sense word fluency

Assessment (phonics) The DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) measure is a standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle - including letter-sound correspondence in which letters represent their most common sounds and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds (Kaminski & Good, 1996). The student is presented an 8.5" x 11" sheet of paper with randomly ordered VC and CVC nonsense words (e.g., sig, rav, ov) and asked to produce verbally the individual letter sound of each letter or verbally produce, or read, the whole nonsense word. For example, if the stimulus word is "vaj" the student could say /v/ /a/ /j/ or say the word /vaj/ to obtain a total of three letter-sounds correct. The student is allowed 1 minute to produce as many letter-sounds as he/she can, and the final score is the number of letter-sounds produced correctly in one minute. Because the measure is fluency based, students should receive a higher score if they are phonologically recoding the word, as they will be more efficiently producing the letter sounds, and receive a lower score if they are providing letter sounds in isolation. The intent of this measure is that students are able to read unfamiliar words as whole words, not just name letter sounds as fast as they can.

### Running Records

Assessment (Phonics, Fluency) A running record allows you to assess a student's reading performance as she/he reads from a benchmark book. Benchmark books are books selected for running record assessment purposes. A running record form, with text from the book printed on the form, accompanies each of the benchmark books. Only the first 100 -150 words of the longer benchmark books are used for the upper level running records. A blank running record form is supplied for teachers who wish to perform running records on books other than the benchmark books or for additional text from the upper level benchmark books.

Assessment (phonics, comprehension)

2.As your student reads, mark words that are read incorrectly on your copy of the passage. For a word to be read correctly, it should be read correctly in context. Self-corrections within three seconds are counted as correct. If the student has not attempted the word within three seconds, say the word for him or her and count the word as incorrect. Mispronunciations, substitutions, and omissions are counted as incorrect.
3.At the end of one minute, make a vertical line after the last word read.
4.Repeat with the other two passages.
5.For each passage, count the number of words read correctly (WCPM).
6.Take the median, or middle, of the three scores. For example, if your student's scores are 98, 101, and 104, the median score is 101. This will determine whether your student is reading above, below, or on grade level.

### Miscue Analysis

Assessment (fluency) Miscue analysis focuses specifically on "cueing systems" used by the reader. The three cueing systsms used in miscue analysis are the same as those used to describe work done by readers in running records. The cueing systems are labeled slightly differently, as the graphophonic system (visual cues in running records), the syntactic system (syntax or structure cues in running records), and the semantic system (meaning cues in running records).

Miscue analysis vs. running records

Running records are a useful tool for determining text level, observing cueing systems in use, and identifying individual teaching points for students. Running records determine text level by the number of errors made during reading. Miscue analysis is less concerned with the number of miscues than with the type of miscues. Good readers don't necessarily transact with text in a word-by word manner. Many good readers skip words, substitute words, mis-call words and still gain a high level of meaning from a text. Miscue analysis honors the reasons behind miscues and the information documented is used to further the reading success of the given student.3

With whom to use miscue analysis

Students eligible for this procedure are independent readers. Most studies conducted using miscue analysis use readers in third grade or higher, but there is no formula to tell exactly when a student is ready to engage in this assessment or intervention. Sandra Wilde suggests that a student is ready to participate when he or she can read unfamiliar material without teacher support.4 Certainly miscues may happen at an earlier stage, but without the foundational knowledge of reading, miscue analysis does not provide window into the choices a student is making while reading.

### Informal Writing & Speaking Samples

Assessment (vocab.)

### Word Sorts

Assessment (vocab.)

### Cloze Activities

Assessment (vocab.) Cloze procedure is a technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text. (Ex. Supply choices for the blanks.
Just as ____________have fur, birds have ____________.

(coats, animals) (feathers, wings))

### Student Presentations

Assessment for speaking, listening, and viewing

teaching method

### Activating Learning

teaching method in social studies

### Retelling steps

1.) prepare with a story retelling guide 2.) read the story 3.) retell the story (using puppets, objects related, story boards, or one copy of the book) 4.) help students retell the story with prompts. 5.) mark the retelling guide which should be arranged beginning, middle, and end of story.

### Giving Running Record

Running records are taken most often at the earlier stages of reading. Students who are not progressing at the expected rate should be assessed even more frequently than the schedule suggested below.
•Early Emergent readers (Levels aa - C): every 2 to 4 weeks
•Emergent readers (Levels D - J): every 4 to 6 weeks
•Early fluent readers (Levels K - P): every 6 to 8 weeks
•Fluent readers (Levels Q - Z): every 8 to 10 weeks

Running Record Form.
1.Select a book that approximates the student's reading level. Explain that she/he will read out loud as you observe and record her/his reading skills.
2.With the running record form in hand, sit next to the student so that you can see the text and the student's finger and eye movements as she/he reads the text.
3.As the student reads, mark each work on the running record form by using the appropriate Running Record Symbols and Marking Conventions shown below. Place a checkmark above each work that is read correctly.
4.If the student reads incorrectly, record above the word what the student reads.
5.If the student is reading too fast for you to record the running record, ask her/him to pause until you catch up.
6.Be sure to pay attention to the reader's behavior. Is the student using meaning (M), structural (S), and visual (V) cues to read words and gather meaning?
7.Intervene as little as possible while the student is reading.
8.If the student is stuck and unable to continue, wait 5 to 10 seconds, then tell her/him the word. If the student seems confused, provide an explanation to clear up the confusion and say, "Try again."

### Running Records Scoring

•Errors (E)--Errors are tallied during the reading whenever a child does any of the following:

--Substitutes another word for a word in the text
--Omits a word
--Inserts a word
--Has to be told a word
•Self-correction (SC)--Self-correction occurs when a child realizes her or his error and corrects it. When a child makes a self-correction, the previous substitution is not scored as an error.

•Meaning (M)--Meaning is part of the cueing system in which the child takes her or his cue to make sense of text by thinking about the story background, information from pictures, or the meaning of a sentence. These cues assist in the reading of a word or phrase.

•Structure (S)--Structure refers to the structure of language and is often referred to as syntax. Implicit knowledge of structure helps the reader know if what she or he reads sounds correct.

•Visual (V)--Visual information is related to the look of the letters in a word and the word itself. A reader uses visual information when she or he studies the beginning sound, word length, familiar word chunks, and so forth.

### Running Record Scoring Formula

Error Rate
Error rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula:

Total words / Total errors = Error rate

Example:
99 / 8 = 12.38, or 12 rounded to nearest whole number
The ratio is expressed as 1:12.
This means that for each error made, the student read approximately 12 words correctly.

Accuracy Rate
Accuracy rate is expressed as a percentage. You can calculate the accuracy rate using the following formula:
(Total words read - Total errors) / Total words read x 100 = Accuracy rate

Example:
(99 - 8) / 99 x 100 = Accuracy rate
91/99 x 100 = Accuracy rate
.919 x 100 = 91.9%, or 92% rounded to the nearest whole number

You can use accuracy rate to determine whether the text read is easy enough for independent reading, appropriate to use without frustration during reading instruction purposes instruction, or too difficult for the reader. The breakdown of these three categories is as follows:

Easy enough for independent reading = 95 - 100%
Instructional level for use in leveled reading session = 90 - 94%
Too difficult and will frustrate the reader = 89% and below

Self-Correction Rate
Self-correction rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula:

(Number of errors + Number of self corrections) / Number of self corrections = Self-correction rate

Example:
(8 + 3) / 3 = Self-correction rate
11 / 3 = 3.666, or 4 rounded to the nearest whole number

The self-correction rate is expressed as 1:4. This means that the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 4 errors.

### What do miscues tell us?

Correction:

Insertion
Does the inserted word detract from meaning? If not, it may just mean the reader is making sense but also inserts. The reader may also be reading too fast. If the insertion is something like using finished for finish, this should be addressed.

Omission:
When words are omitted, it may mean weaker visual tracking. Determine if the meaning of the passage is affected or not. If not, omissions can also be the result of not focusing or reading too fast. It may also mean the sight vocabulary is weaker.

Repetition
Lots of repetition may mean that the text level is too difficult. Sometimes readers repeat when they're uncertain and will repeat the word(s) to make sense of the passage.

Reversal:
Watch for altered meaning. Many reversals happen with young readers with high frequency words - of for for etc.

Substitutions:
Sometimes a child will use a substitution because they don't understand the word being read. Does the substitution make sense in the passage, is it a logical substitution?

### Formative Assessment

the collection of data through on-going daily lessons or units of study in which provide educators with valuable info.

### Summative Assessment

The collection of date at a specific completion point in order to identify needs and make decisions to support student learning. Used most ofter at the end of a unit of study to analyze a particular concept or skill.

### Planets

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (under debate) - Each planet revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit at varying speeds. Each planet also has its own moon(s) that revolve around the planets' caught in the planets gravitational pull.

### Meteroid

A stony or metallic particle that revolves around the sun.

### Meteor

is created when meterites are burning throught the Earth's atmosphere.

### Comet

revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and a nucleus. The tail always points away from the sun due to the solar wind.

### Constellations

A type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky. There are 88 constellational regions. Each region is named for a group of stars found within it.

### Earth within the Universe

20 Billion years ago the universe originated from a catastrophic explosion, which spread outward in all directions. Galaxies were formed into galactic clusters. The milky way galaxy is where Earth is located. Earth is almost 5 billion years old. Earth has one moon.

### Moon Phases

Lunar monnth is 28 days in which the moon revolves around the Earth. It reflects light from the sun's light. It rotates upon an axis like Earth at exactly the same period and speed. Therefore the same side of the moon is seen at all times. The moon phases are caused by the position of the moon relative to the sun. 5 phases: New moon, crescent moon, quarter moon, gibbous moon, full moon.

### Lunar Eclipse

The moon is blocked by Earth's shadow.

### Solar Eclipse

The moon casts a shadow upon the Earth.

### Life Cycle

Every living organism moves through these stages:
1.) Come into being (sometimes a larvae state)
2.) Grow
3.) Metamorphosis - a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation
4.) Mature
5.) Reproduce
6.) Die
Some lower species exhibit additional juvenile and larvae stages. (Ex. Frog, Butterfly)

### Kingdom

Living things are categorized according to kingdoms. There are five:
1.) Montera - Single-celled organism without nuclei (bacteria)
2.) Protista - Single-celled organism with nuclei (algae, protozoans)
3.) Fungi - Single-celled AND multi-celled organisms (mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen)
4.) Plantae - Multi-cellular plant organisms (moss, fern, pine, flowering)
5.) Animalia - Multi-cellular animals

### Linnean Classification System

Kids Playing Chicken On Freeways Get Smashed
Kingdom breaks down into
Phylum - contains organisms that are genetically related through common ancestry. Broken down into
Class - Group shares a common attribute, characteristic, or trait. Breaks down into
Order - broken down into
Family - multiple traits in common. Broken down into
Genus - broken down into
Species - organisms can intervreed and produce offspring that can propagate the species

### Structure & Function of Living Systems

Made of protoplasm (living contents of a cell), organized into cells, use energy, capable of growth, have definite life spans, reproduce, afffected by environment, and adapt and respond to environment

### Water Cycle

1.) Condensation - Opposite of evaporation. Occurs when gas is changed into a liquid
2.) Precipitation -
When the temperature and atmospheric pressure are right, the small droplets of water in clouds form larger droplets and precipitation occurs. The raindrops fall to Earth.
3.) Runoff - Much of the water that returns to Earth as precipitation runs off the surface of the land, and flows down hill into streams, rivers, ponds and lakes.
4.) Infiltration - Infiltration is an important process where rain water soaks into the ground, through the soil and underlying rock layers.
5.) Evaporation - Changes from liquid to gas
6.) Transpiration - As plants absorb water from the soil, the water moves from the roots through the stems to the leaves. Once the water reaches the leaves, some of it evaporates from the leaves, adding to the amount of water vapor in the air. This process of evaporation through plant leaves is called transpiration.

### Layers of the Earth

Crust - 5-30 miles think, not fixed, a mosaic of moving plates, OUTER SHELL
Mantle - 1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow), circulating currents, causing the plates to move
Outer core - 1,300 miles thick, viscous liquid, the Earth's magnetic field originates here
Inner core - 800 milse to the center of the earth, solid

### Plate Tectonics

Earth's crust is divided into about 20 plates. Each plate varies in size and thickness. Plates continually drift and shift. They are found under continents and beneath the ocean.

### Plate Boundaries

Convergent (collison) - results in mountains, volcanoes, ridges, recycling of crust
Transform (rubbing) - results in earthquakes
Divergent (seperating) - results in new crust, rivers, oceans, lakes

### Heat Sources

Influencese Earth more than any other process in the universe. Two sources: Solar Energy and Radioactivity

### Solar Energy

The sun - Earth is on an axis, and the sun hits the surface at varying angles causing the major climates of the planet. Influences the typre of life in various regions.

Earth's core. Is responsible for plate tectonics, most volcanoes, and earthquakes, which are located near plate boundaries. Radioactivity makes mountains, valleys, ocean basins, lake beds, islands, trenches, and most other forms.

### Erosion

The process of moving the weathered materials (rivers, winds)

### Rock cycle

All rocks come from the mantle (except limestone). Rock cycle never stops. Three stages - Forms from magma to igneaous rock - forms when magma cools. Sedimentary - Forms when layers of sediments are compressed (sandstone, coal, shale) and Metamorphic - Forms through the transformation of ignenous and sedimentary rocks through heat and pressure (marble, slate, quartzite).

### Instruction for Comprehension

Grand Conversations, Think-Alouds, Graphic Organizers, Story Structure, Genre, Predict and Confirm, literature circles and book clubs

### Grand Conversations

Discussions held by the entire class. Teacher is not the director but the facilitator. Student-directed conversation. Children critique and debate. Focus on literary elements.

### Think-Alouds

Allows teacher to model how a good reader THINKS while reading. Teacher reads aloud, stopping periodically to make predictions, clarify meaning, decode words, make personal connections, question the author, and summarize what's been read.

### Process Writing

Prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing

### Prewriting

Students chose a topic and recognize a purpose and audience. They generate, select, & organize ideas & details to develop their topic. Students maintain a writers notebook where they can express their ideas, write words they find interesting and respond to what they have read or heard. The teacher supports this process through the introduction and modeling of strategies using a variety of graphic organizers and such like listing, note taking, outlining, and webbing.

### Drafting

Students use their planning tools to begin to compose sentences quickly & freely. Students take responsibility to write their ideas down and write as much as possible knowing that they will rework the initial draft again and again as they are apprenticed to writing in a specific genre & for a specific purpose.

### Revising

Students seek responses to what they have written from the teacher during individual conferences. They receive feedback from peers in response groups & when presenting their work from the author & chair. Feedback from these sources supports student's revising of their own work & self-management of the development of the select pieces of writing as well as writers. Individual conferences enable instruction & assessment to be tailored to individual student needs. This part of the process focuses on improving elements of the 1st draft, including its clarity, organization, coherence, & fluency. Students are expected to raise questions and set goals for improving their writing. Students make an active use of prior knowledge & learning, additional transitional words, concrete language, sensory details, delete extraneous & repetitive details and make new word choices. Response Groups - give students the opportunity to meet with a small group or a partner to revise a draft. Students engage in accountable talk using the language of standards and criteria in writing rubrics as a basis for providing responses. Is an ongoing process, therefore there might be a 1st draft, 2nd draft etc. until both writer and partner are satisfied.

### Editing

Focuses on mechanics (ie grammer, spelling, & punctuation). The writer works with peers & confers with the teacher during a writing conference at this stage.

### Publishing

Students produce an appropriately formated document to audience, consider audience regarding the appearance of work.

### Author's Chair

A moral formal event in which students schedule their turn at "taking the chair" to gain feedback for further revision of their work in progress.

### Instruction of writing

Shared writing, interactive writing, and guided writing

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