← religion flashcards Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All 922 b.c.e. Israel is divided 721 b.c.e. fall of Israel 621 b.c.e. Josiah's reform 587 b.c.e. Jerusalem is destroyed 538 b.c.e. small group of jews head back to Jerusalem 167 b.c.e. Antiochus Epiphanes forbids the worship of Yahweh 164 b.c.e Hanukkah is established 63 b.c.e. Roman general Pompey takes over Judah, end of Hasmonian period 49 c.e. Jerusalem conference / council of Jerusalem 70 c.e. Titus breaks through and destroys the temple Abraham "exalted father" Absalom Son of David who leads an uprising against him, killed by Davids general Joab Ahab King of Israel who was married to jezebel Ahaz King of Judah, father of Hezekiah Ai Canaanite city that Joshua conquered Alexander the Great. Conquered most of the world from Greece to India. (Hellenism) Amaziah Priest of Bethel Amnon 1/2 brother who raper Tamar Amos Shepherd that became a prophet. Earliest to have oracles under his name Antiochus IV Epiphanes King of the Seleucids who attempted to destroy the Jewish religion triggering the Maccabean revolt apocalyptic literature Prophetic writing greatly influenced Christianity paul's letters Romans, 1 and 2 corinthians, galatians, ephesians, philipeans, colossians, 1 and 2 thessalonians, 1 and 2 timothy, titus, and philemon Apocrypha means "hidden things" refers to books such as the tobit and 1 maccabees Ark of the Covenant Portable shrine of Yahweh. Symbol that God is with them Assyria Nation that took over Israel and was later overthrown by the Babylonians Baal Canaanite God of life Babylon Nubuchadnezzar ruled this city and it destroyed Jerusalem Bathsheba Originally married to Uriah, but David arranged for him to be killed so he could marry her. Bethlehem Birthplace of David Bible Collection of Jewish and Christian sacred writings Canaan Land promised to Abrahams descendants canon list of books that are honored as sacred Chaldeans Famous for their wisdom in astronomy and astrology circumcision mark of gods covenant classical prophecy Abraham made a covenant with god, and was promised the land of Canaan The Conquest Israelites military invasions of Canaan Cyrus Founder of the Persian empire. Defeated Babylon and liberated the Jews Daniel Prophet; when you are faced with persecution by your faith, hold firm and god will protect you David Second king of the unites 12 tribe Israel. Kills Goliath, Dead Sea Scrolls Collection of Jewish manuscripts found preserved in a cave Deborah Woman judge who summoned Barak to help battle sisera Deuteronomistic historians Scholars who study the book of Deuteronomy Documentary Hypothesis the torah was derived from originally independent parallel and complete narratives which were subsequently combined into current form by a series of editors - JEDP sources E source Elohist (850 bce) D source Deuteronomistic (650 bce) P source Priestly (550-400 bce) Domitian Roman emperor, Younger son of Vespasian Elijah " Yahweh is my God" Prophet who led attacks agains King Ahab's cults of Baal. Enuma Elish Story that God-Marduk created the world out of a watery chaos through separation and division eponym Person from whom a people/group had taken its name from Esau First son of Isaac and Rebekah, Gave his birthright to Jacob etiology Narrative created to explain the origin of a social practice Exile period where jews were held captive in Babylon Exilic prophecy prophecies stated during the time of the exile by the babylonians, through jeremiah, ezra, and ezekiel Exodus Escape of the Israelite slaves from egypt Ezekiel Major prophet who was exiled to Babylon, had strange visions and priestly interests Ezra Brought back an early form of the Torah to rebuild the faith of the returning jews Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia, syria, Palestine Festival Scrolls Megillot; Song of songs, ruth, lamentations, ecclesiastes, esther Galilee Northern Palestine where Jesus grew up and conducted much of his ministry Gentile Non Jewish Gomer Unfaithful wife to prophet Hosea, Symbol of Israels disloyalty to Yahweh Great Rebellion the great revolt, 1st of 3 major rebellions by jews against the roman empire, began in 66 ce, due to greek and jewish religious tensions which grew into anti taxation protests against rome, began in jerusalem when the jews ran king agrippa II out of jerusalem to galilee Hanukkah Jewish holiday celebrating the rebuilding of the altar Haran site where Yahweh first called to Abraham Hasmonean Period Judas Maccabeas drives out the Seleucids. Last period where jews ruled themselves Herod the Great ruler of Palestine who lavishly rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem high places Josiah destroyed them during his reform Holy War herem used in the hebrew bible which means "devote" or "destroy", referred to as the ban, total destruction of an enemy Hosea 8th century prophet, married the prostitute Gomer Immanuel Isaiah's son, "God is with us" Isaac Son of Abraham and Sarah, he was going to be sacrificed at first. Father of Esau and Jacob Isaiah Major prophet during assyrian threat. He prophecized about the 3 crises Israel name given to Jacob Jacob youngest son of Isaac, tricked Esau Jamnia ancient city of palestine Jeremiah Prophet who warned Judah's leaders that the attack from Babylonia was punishment from Yahweh for breaking the covenant Jericho heavily fortified city that Joshua conquered. Jeroboam I first ruler of the northern kingdom. Led the 10 northern tribes Jerusalem King Davids capital, resting place of Yahweh Jesus Son of God Jezebel Wife of Ahab, promoted the worship of Baal. Her body was eaten by dogs Jordan River Last barrier the Israelites crossed before entering Canaan. Joseph Youngest Son of Jacob, ruled in Egypt Joshua Successor of Moses, led the Israelites in their military conquest of Canaan. Josiah King of Judah, conducted the reforms and was killed by Pharaoh Neco Judah Destroyed by the babylonians Judas Maccabeus 3rd son of Matthias led the Maccabean revolt Judges men and women who led the Israelites in military battles Kings Book of the Bible Law Common term for the Torah Leah Jacob was tricked into marrying her, older sister of rachel Maccabean Revolt Guerilla warfare against Antiochus Epiphanes led by Matthias and Judas Maccabeus Manasseh The oldest son of Joseph, Responsible for Judah's fall to Babylon Masada the zealots attacked during the revolt against rome Mattathias Priest in Modein who begins the Maccabean revolt. Mesopotamia Head of the Persian Gulf Messiah "anointed one" Israelite king who gets oil poured on his head Midian ancient tribal territory Moses Hebrew who freed the Israelites from Egypt. Mediated a covenant between Yahweh and the people Nathan Prophet and political counselor for David. Helped Soloman succeed him because David killed Bathsheba's husband Nazareth Where Jesus spent his youth and began ministry Nebuchadnezzar Most powerful ruler of Babylonia, Killed Neco and attacked Judah. Nehemiah Asked Persian ruler if he could go help rebuild the walls parallelism structure of hebrew poetry Passover annual jewish celebration, the last night of bondage in Egypt. The angel of death came and destroyed every first born. Paul (Saul) He went around preaching about Jesus, and led missionaries. He was harassed by the Jews. Pentateuch Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Persia Ruled by Cyrus, took out the Babylonians Peter Most prominent of Jesus's 12 disciples, first to recognize jesus and Israels Messiah. Pharisees experts of interpreting the Torah, against Hellenization Philistines Israels chief rivals, came from the Agean sea Plain of Megiddo Where Pharaoh Necho killed Josiah Pompey Takes over Judah in 63 bce, end of Hasmonian period. Prophets One who preaches the word of god. Psalms Book of songs Q Hypothetical document that contain a collection of Jesus's sayings found in matt. and luke Rachel Second and favorite wife of Jacob. Rebekah Wife of Isaac Reed Sea sea the israelites had to cross Rehoboam son of Solomon, Last ruler of the united kingdom, Very harsh ruler Ruth Widow from Moab who marries Boaz, and is the ancestor of David Sadducees Only accepted what was written. Support Hellenization Samaria Capital of the northern kingdom, destroyed by the assyrians. Samuel Israels last judge. Performed priestly functions. Anointed Saul, but then rejected him for David. Sanhedrin The "Great Counsel" Peter is brought before them for preaching about jesus to the people Sarah Wife of Abraham, mother of Isaac Satan The devil who tries to tempt jesus Saul Paul Second Isaiah Deutero-Isaiah Seleucids Greek Dynasty founded by Alexander the Greats general Seleucus. Fought against the Maccabean revolt Septuagint Greek edition of the hebrew bible servant songs Songs Sheol place of intense gloom and perpetual darkness Sinai Mountain where god first appeared to Moses Solomon Son of David, King of Israel who asked for a discerning mind. (wisdom) Built Yahweh a great temple suffering servant Songs during the exile of the Israelites, Yahweh is the only god synagogue Jewish gathering of no fewer than 10 males for worship Syria Kingdom of Aram, capital is Damascus Temple Sanctuary that Solomon built on mount Zion to house the arc of the covenant testament "covenant" two parts of the bible Tetragrammaton YHWH Torah "Law" instruction of teaching the twelve tribes, They descended form the 12 sond of Jacob Vespasian He was an emperor of rome who originally was supposed to recapture Jerusalem form the zealots Way, the Christianity Wilderness, the where jesus wandered for 40 days when being tempted by the devil wisdom literature biblical books dealing with practical and ethical behavior Woman Wisdom Foolish Writings portion of the hebrew bible Yahweh word for god Zedekiah last king of judah. Nebuchadnezzar made him watch as his sons were killed and then blinded him Zerubbabel Heads back to Jerusalem to rebuild altar Zion Jerusalem; Where the arc of the covenant is held 922 bce Rehoboam harsh leader in the south = Judah ruler at Jerusalem. North = Israel at Samaria 721 bce northern kingdom is take by the assyrians 587 bce Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian takes Jerusalem 587 bce Beginning of the exile 538 bce Cyrus defeats the babylonians 538 bce end of the exile 167 bce Maccabean revolt begins against the Seleucids 164 bce maccabean revolt ends 70 ce destruction of the 2nd temple abraham original name Abram, 1st covenant with El-Shaddai, circumcision = sign of the covenant, will gain Canaan sarah original name Sarai, will help to make great nations isaac covenant passed down to him from his father rebekah barren until she eats from the tree of Mamre to have kids jacob heel grabber/he who supplants/trickster, quiet tent boy who makes food and is loved by Rebekah esau red hairy hunter who is favored by his father isaac jacob runs away to Canaan when he tricks his father isaac and esau, falls in love with Laban's daughter Rachel rachel jacob has to work 14 years for Laban to get rachel leah customary for the second daughter to be wedded first from laban leah reuben, simeon, levi, judah, issachar, zebulun, dinah rachel barren for 7 years then joseph, dies during childbirth with benjamin esau loved by isaac more jacob elaborate goat fur plan on forearms, and scent of esau so he smells like esau to the blind isaac, gets blessing jacob israel (you have striven with God and humans and prevailed) joseph sold into slavery by his brothers joseph dream of the sheaves, dream of the sun moon and stars, interpretation of the dream of the cupbearer, interpretation of the baker, interpretation of the dreams of pharoah joseph accused of raping potiphar's wife joseph throws his brothers in prison when they come to egypt because of the famine, benjamin isnt with them so they have to come back again when they run out of food, the 2nd time he tells them who he is and the israelites come to egypt to the land of goshen moses floats away on a papyrus basket on the nile and pharoah's daughter finds him and they raise him moses has to flee egypt for midian, marries jethro's dauther zipporah and have son gershom moses leading a flock to mt. horeb, comes accross the burning bush, new covenant to get the israelite out of egypt moses helps bring down the 10 plagues onto egypt, pass over festival born, leads the people out, opens the red sea, god gives him the 10 commandments joshua he and caleb are sent out into canaan to scout the armies. they are the only two that arent killed for unfaithfulness joshua military leader who destroyed the famous canaanite city of jericho jamnia an assembly of leading palestinian rabbis held about 90ce in the coastal village of jamnia (yavneh) to define and guide judaism after the roman destruction of jerusalem and its temple mesopotamia area between euphrates and tigris rivers at the head of the persian gulf. cradle of the sumerian, akkadian, assyrian, and neo-babylonian civilizations joshua name means "yahweh is salvation", leads the conquest of canaan, following the judeans' return from babylon, high priest of jerusalem during the governorship of zerubbabel J source Yahwist (950 bce) mannasseh rebuilt the high places that were for baal along with sacred poles, baal worhipper, ruled after hezekiah in 687bce, worst judean king, converted to yahweh while imprisoned by the babylonians, josiah 1. reinstated that passover holiday that was unknown for centuries 2. destroyed all the high places 3. centralization of sacrifice at jerusalem josiah name means "healed by yahweh" or "supported by yahweh", son of amon, vision of ascending into heaven, has sons zedekiah johanan jehoahaz and jehoiakim nebuchadnezzar sent the jews into exile from 597-587 bce, ruled from 605-562 bce, created hanging gardens of babylon, took judah and jerusalem, destroys the jerusalem temple, defeated the egyptians at the battle of carchemish chaldeans besieged jerusalem when the jews were with the egyptians withdrew when they knew that they were praying to god, israelites did not fight them jeremiah "weeping prophet", God's message to him was that an attack on you they will overcome you they can't (chaldeans), was imprisoned by nebuchadnezzar in a cistern, was prophet during josiah --> zedekiah, those who stay in jerusalem will die by the sword and those who leave will die of pestilence, tells the jews to only worship God ezekiel "God will strengthen", revealed prophesies regarding the destruction of jerusalem 4 yrs after the exile, ezekiel babylon is God's chosen instrument of punishment, lived in babylon during the 1st deportation, vision of God on the fiery chariot, referred to as mortal, makes oracles against judah by its neighbors, vision of descendent of David (Jesus), becomes known as the second isaiah ezekiel bonds himself for 190 days, 40 days for judah's captivity, burns 1/3 of his hair, strikes down the rest with his sword symbolized how the israelites would be struck down by famine sword or babylonian exiles, God kills all of Gog and Magog ezekiel temple was supposed to be rebuilt, everlasting covenant second isaiah ezekiel focuses on messages of hope and consolation, yahweh plans to grant Israel their freedom back to the promised land from babylon, cyrus is seen as the messiah cyrus marduk the deity favored cyrus because babylonian rulers neglected worship, restored all shrines suffering servant isaiah 53, were people who represent yahweh in the world, describes people as an individual rather than as a whole, man's sorrows and acquainted with grief, 4 poems zerubbabel governor of the province of judah by darius I, returned in 1st year of captivity of cyrus king of persia, associated with jeshua the high priest, did not let neighboring nations help rebuild jerusalem, nehemiah originally combined with ezra, 1st person view - personal memoir, was artaxerxes' cupbearer, rebuilds the jerusalem walls, eventually returned back to artaxerxes in the capital of susa ezra ezra and nehemiah were originally one book, mosaic tradition, compiled and edited during the babylonian exile, resembles covenant renewal, clear that they were slaves to persia ezra strong oral tradition in his writing, tears his clothes and makes the israelites feel guilt for iniquities because they serve other gods, new covenant that israelites shall not marry foreign women ezra "God helps" parallelism does not need rhyme or regular measure, noted for it's brevity repetition of key words or phrases and vivid imagery parallelism synonomous, antithetical, or synthetical ruth name means "companion" sheol "grave" "pit" or "abode for the dead" woman wisdom personified by female form hannukkah also known as the festival of lights, 8 days long, commemorates the rededication of the holy temple in jerusalem, lighting of the candelabrum 9 branches on the menorah judas maccabeus led the maccabean revolt from 167-164 bce fought against syrian king antiochus IV, known as the hebrew hammer mattathias central role in the story of hannukah, served in the temple in jerusalem, during the time of the jewish revolt seleucids the greek macedonians that ruled syria antiochus IV epiphanes ruled from 175-164 bce until his death, near conquest of egypt, killed in the maccabean revolt hasmoneans the ruling class of the kingdom of judah and surrounding region during the classical antiquity 140-116bce, ruled under the seleucids in the region of judea, civil war went on between two hasmonean brothers when Pompey took it in 63 bce herod the great appointed ruler of palestine when jesus was born, lavishly rebuilt the temple, half jew, ruled with an iron hand ended in 4 ce, sons: archaleus, herod antipas, philip masada stronghold that king herod the great created on a fortified plateu 800 feet above the dead sea, besieged by roman soldiers and a mass suicide of sicarii rebels pharisees descendants from the hasideans, they could lead worship and could interpret what the bible says sadducees priesthood aristocracy and nobles of jerusalem jericho 40000 soldiers of joshua circle the fortress for 7 days and on the 8th priests blow their horns and everyone shouts and the walls come down, used herem to destroy everything inside except for rahab and her family ai 36 men die on the first attack at ai because achan transgressed against yahweh, ai 2nd attack israelites lure soldiers of ai out of the fortress while other israelites destroy everything inside and then pursue the rest of the men of ai and kill them all, joshua has the king of ai hung from a tree and then thrown in front of the rubble of ai ark of the covenant half of it was built in front of mt. gerizim and the other half in front of mt. ebal joshua first to have perfect loyalty with god and gains the promised land deborah prophetess wife, sends barak's men to fight sisera's at mt. tabor, sisera flees to jael wife of heber, jael kills him in his sleep samuel transition from judges to kings, prophet --> judge --> priest, he tells the israelites that they will be cruelly exploited if they elect a king, eventually God lets it happen philistines defeat the israelites in battle at the valley between aphek and ebenezar and capture the ark of the covenant philistines ark of the covenant was with them for 7 months from ashdod to gath to ekron, they all get plagues of boils, ekron decides to give it back to the israelites with guilt offerings - 5 gold tumors, 5 gold mice saul first king of israel, reigned from Gibeah, fell on his sword to avoid capture by the philistines at mt. gilboa, 3 of his sons were killed in that same battle saul had to find the lost donkeys of his father kish, samuel saw him and God revealed that he was to be king, samuel hid him in mizpah in the land of benjamin, was acclaimed king at gilgal saul kills all of the amelekites, is haunted by evil spirits and david has to play a lyre to calm him, lets him kill goliath a philistine great warrior, tries to kill david twice with a spear, visits the witch of endor samuel last judge, first major prophet, comes from levite heritage, name means "god has heard", anointed the first two kings even though he stresses the negative effects of kings samuel high devotion to god, goes to the tabernacle to hear God, preached against idolatry david second king of israel annointed by samuel, saul lets him standup to goliath, takes a staff and sling shot and kills goliath and then cuts off his head with goliath's sword, he is praised more for the victory than saul and saul gets jealous david jonathan saul's son makes a covenant with david and loves him (brotherly love?), plays the lyre for saul, saul tries to kill him with a spear and david evades it twice david saul tries to give him merab his daughter as wife but david loves michal, saul knows God is with david, david wins many successes in battle david saul tries to order jonathan and servants to kill david, jonathan loves david too much and tells him the plot, saul then agrees not to kill david, saul tries to kill him again with a spear a second time, saul is warned by michal to escape the city to another city called ramah where samuel is, prophet frenzy in the city saul goes to city too but gets caught up in the frenzy david lives in the philistine land of gath, achish give shim wife ziklag as a wife david davidic covenant, david's line shall be forever royal, absolute attachment by God classical prophecy no one outside of israel receives the soul of prophecy any longer - abraham and his covenant with God prophets one who is claimed to have been contacted by the divine, navi in hebrew means spokesperson, sometimes the prophets were ridiculed and weren't viewed in a positive manner, were not always jewish, could be men or women psalms 150 poems, use parallelism, musical reference and direction, psalm scrolls = dead sea scrolls, technically 5 books in psalms psalms can be hymns, laments, royal psalms, thanksgiving psalms, or wisdom psalms zion jerusalem and this term go hand in hand, mountain near jerusalem, city of david, there used to be a jebusite fortress there until david conquered it wisdom literature teaches about divinity and virtue, include: book of job, psalms, proverbs, ecclesiastes, song of songs, wisdom, and sirach women wisdom personified in psalms as a womanly form, foreign or strange woman, personified as an adulteress prostituite, a woman from whom you run from writings ketuvim part of the judaic bible, books it contains: psalms, proverbs, job, song of songs, ruth, book of lamentations, book of esther - five scrolls (megillot), daniel, ezra-nehemiah bible jewish and catholic texts compiled into one large book of canons canon list of religious books considered to be authoritative scripture by a particular religious community. law first portion of the hebrew bible dead sea scrolls The texts are of great religious and historical significance, as they include the earliest known surviving copies of Biblical and extra-biblical documents and preserve evidence of great diversity in late Second Temple Judaism. They are written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, mostly on parchment, but with some written on papyrus. These manuscripts generally date between 150 BCE and 70 CE apocalyptic literature "revelation", "an unveiling or unfolding of things not previously known and which could not be known apart from the unveiling." jesus' second coming. influenced a lot in NT books such as John and revelations and books in the OT like daniel and ezekiel ark of the covenant Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in Book of Exodus as solely containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed. According to some traditional interpretations of the Book of Exodus, Book of Numbers, and the Letter to the Hebrews the Ark also contained Aaron's rod, a jar of manna and the first Torah scroll as written by Moses; however, the first of the Books of Kings says that at the time of king Solomon, the Ark contained only the two Tablets of the Law. According to the Book of Exodus, the Ark was built at the command of God, in accordance with the instructions given to Moses on Mount Sinai. God was said to have communicated with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. haran Haran was born in Ur of the Chaldees (Ur Kaśdim), the son of Terah and thus a descendant of Shem. Haran's brothers were Abram/Abraham and Nahor. Haran fathered two daughters, Milcah and Iscah, and a son, Lot, who fled Sodom and Gomorrah's destruction and fathered the Moabites and Ammonites. gentile meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe, referred to non-Israelite peoples or nations, the broad meaning of "peoples" or "nations" which was sometimes used to refer to Israelites, but most commonly as a generic label for peoples, goy, discrepancies about whether or not gentiles needed to follow mosaic law midian located in the "northwest Arabian Peninsula, on the east shore of the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea (the "Hejaz") "Some scholars believe it to be somewhere in or around Sudan as the Bible does not make direct mention of its location.