AP Chem Formulas/Equations

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Avogadro's Number

6.02x10²³

Molar Mass

MM=g/mol

Anode

oxidizes, loses e⁻

Cathode

reduces, gains e⁻

∆Enthalpy

∆E=E(final) - E(initial)

Calorimetry

q=sm∆T (q=joules transferred; s=specific heat constant; m=grams)

q(solution)

= - q(rxn)

frequency, wavelength

vλ=c (v=frequency s⁻¹; λ=wavelength meters; c=3.00x10⁸)

photon energy, frequency

E=hv (v=frequency s⁻¹; E=energy of one photon; h=6.63x10³⁴)

Quantum Number
*n, l, ml, ms

n=energy level (1,2,3,4...)

Quantum Number
n, *l, ml, ms

l=orbital (s=0;p=1;d=2;f=3)

Quantum Number
n, l, *ml, ms

ml=orientation (-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)

Quantum Number
n, l, ml, *ms

ms=spin (+½, -½)

Gas volume per mole

22.4 L/mol

Ideal Gas Equation

PV=nRT (P=atm; V=L; n=moles; R=.08206; T=Kelvin)

∆ in Gas

(P₁V₁)/T₁=(P₂V₂)/T₂

Boyle

P₁V₁=P₂V₂

Charles

V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂

Gay-Lussacs

P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂

.08206

L atm mol⁻¹ K⁻¹

8.314

J mol⁻¹ K⁻¹

760 torr (mm Hg)

1 atm

Effusion

Rate₁ / Rate₂= square root of (MM₂ / MM₁)

Reaction Rate Expression

R=k[A][B] (coefficients become exponents)

1st Order Rate Law

ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]₀ ([A]=concentration; k=rate constant, t=time)

Kwater

= Kacid x Kbase = 10¹⁴

Strong Acid

HCl

Strong Acid

H₂SO₄

Strong Acid

HNO₃

Strong Acid

HBr

Strong Acid

HI

Strong Acid

HClO₄

Strong Base

a base ending in (OH⁻)

Dalton

Total Pressure = Sum of partial pressures

Partial pressure

total pressure x mol x (total mol)⁻¹

Solvent + volatile solute

decreased freezing point, increased boiling point

Heat of Fusion/Vaporization

= moles x constant
(fusion = - freezing)

Ecell (voltage)

=Ecathode - Eanode (anode is more negative than cathode)

∆G from voltage

∆G = -nFEcell (F=96500 J/V

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