# AP Chem Formulas/Equations

### 39 terms by Erytt

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6.02x10²³

MM=g/mol

### Anode

oxidizes, loses e⁻

### Cathode

reduces, gains e⁻

### ∆Enthalpy

∆E=E(final) - E(initial)

### Calorimetry

q=sm∆T (q=joules transferred; s=specific heat constant; m=grams)

= - q(rxn)

### frequency, wavelength

vλ=c (v=frequency s⁻¹; λ=wavelength meters; c=3.00x10⁸)

### photon energy, frequency

E=hv (v=frequency s⁻¹; E=energy of one photon; h=6.63x10³⁴)

### Quantum Number *n, l, ml, ms

n=energy level (1,2,3,4...)

### Quantum Number n, *l, ml, ms

l=orbital (s=0;p=1;d=2;f=3)

### Quantum Number n, l, *ml, ms

ml=orientation (-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)

ms=spin (+½, -½)

22.4 L/mol

### Ideal Gas Equation

PV=nRT (P=atm; V=L; n=moles; R=.08206; T=Kelvin)

### ∆ in Gas

(P₁V₁)/T₁=(P₂V₂)/T₂

P₁V₁=P₂V₂

V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂

P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂

L atm mol⁻¹ K⁻¹

J mol⁻¹ K⁻¹

1 atm

### Effusion

Rate₁ / Rate₂= square root of (MM₂ / MM₁)

### Reaction Rate Expression

R=k[A][B] (coefficients become exponents)

### 1st Order Rate Law

ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]₀ ([A]=concentration; k=rate constant, t=time)

### Kwater

= Kacid x Kbase = 10¹⁴

HCl

H₂SO₄

HNO₃

HBr

HI

HClO₄

### Strong Base

a base ending in (OH⁻)

### Dalton

Total Pressure = Sum of partial pressures

### Partial pressure

total pressure x mol x (total mol)⁻¹

### Solvent + volatile solute

decreased freezing point, increased boiling point

### Heat of Fusion/Vaporization

= moles x constant
(fusion = - freezing)

### Ecell (voltage)

=Ecathode - Eanode (anode is more negative than cathode)

### ∆G from voltage

∆G = -nFEcell (F=96500 J/V

Example: