the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
consistency in measurement
items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Subdivide the population into groups that share a characteristic such as gender then draw a sample from each subgroup
scientific method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment
experimental research that takes place in a natural setting
extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
researchers attempt to categorize the subjects (by age, health status, gender, ect.) and ensure that the control group has members similar to those in the experimental group
(psychology) bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment
double blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or the placebo
single blind procedure
research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group
preconceived notions of a person answering [a survey] which may alter the experiments purpose
a source of bias in responding to questions on personality inventories that occurs when people try to make themselves "look good" even if it means giving untrue answers
a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
tell people they are ingesting a drug when it really is a non-effective placebo to separate physical from psychological affects
a research method that involves gathering information from people through the use of surveys or questionnaires
out of all the surveys a researcher has distributed, the proportion that were completed and returned
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
case study method
research that collects lengthy, detailed information about a person's background, usually for psychological treatment
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
a number that describes something about the "average" score of a distribution
positive vs negative skew
Positive: when a distribution includes an extreme score that is very high
Negative: Particularly low score
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time.
probability of getting a sample value at least as extreme as obtained by chance alone assuming the null hypothesis is true
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
institutional review board
A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology.
use of force to get someone to obey
an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
the condition of being unknown
the act of holding information in confidence, not to be released to unauthorized individuals
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
The anatomy of the nervous system
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones.
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full blown or not at all
ions going from chemical to electrical to chemical
chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that excite the next neuron into firing.
chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that inhibit the next neuron from firing
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Neurons that transmit messages from sense organs to the central nervous system.
motor neurons that send signals from the brain to the glands and muscles
central nervous system
The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral nerves
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)
method of visualizing a living brain by injecting a dye into the blood and then passing x-rays through the head and recording them by detectors on the other side
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord
positron emission tomography (PET scan)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a participant performs a physical or cognitive task
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
part of the brain, works with the cerebellum in coordinating voluntary movement; neural stimulation studied in activation synthesis theory may originate here
The portion of the lower brain that coordinates and organizes bodily movements for balance and accuracy
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control
The organization of the brain into right and left hemispheres, with each hemisphere performing unique and specialized functions
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
on all four lobes, areas that combine sensory and motor information; coordinate interaction among different brain areas
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
The capacity for the brain to alter its structure and function.
collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
Identical twins produced from a single fertilized egg; thus MZ twins have identical genotypes.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 202)
sensory habituation / perceptual adaptation
our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them
cocktail party phenomenon
a phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby
The sense of vision, hearing and touch; they gather energy in the form of light, sound waves, and pressure.
smell and taste
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
rods and cones
visual receptors that transduce light neural impulses. The rods are concentrated in the periphery of the retina, the cones in the fovea.
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
the point where the optic nerve enters the retina
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
- Theories that explain how we hear different pitches or tones.
- Place Theory explains that the hair cell sin the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound bases o where they are located in the cochlea.
- According to Frequency Theory, Place Theory accurately describes how hair cells sens the upper range of pitches but not the lower tones. Lower tones are sensed by the rate at which the cells fire. We sense pitch because the hair cells fire at different rates (frequencies) in the cochlea.
the idea that different sound frequencies stimulate different locations on the basilar membrae
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 219)
hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear
hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
the sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect. 50% of the time
Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
the smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect. 50% of the time
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
bottom up processing
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
we normally perceive images as groups, not as isolated elements, innate and inevitable
the property of being close together
the quality of being similar
the property of a continuous and connected period of time
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric
the quality of being free from change or variation
perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina
the tendency for a visual object to be perceived as having the same brightness under widely different conditions of illumination
Sources of information that signal the distance from the observer to the distal stimulus.
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
levels of consciousness
terms used to describe alterations of consciousness caused by injury, disease, or substances such as medication, drugs, or alcohol
The level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur
A level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 329)
a level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious
information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior
A level of mental activity that influences consciousness but is not conscious.
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
stage 1: brief, transitional; stage 2: sleep spindles; stage 3&4: slow-wave sleep; stage 5: REM, EEG vivid dreaming, last about 90 minutes and contain 5 cycles
Awake: Delta and Alpha waves
Stage 1: "Sleep Spindles" (short bursts of alpha waves)
Stage 2: Theta waves, and "K complexes"
Stage 3: Delta waves (low-frequency, high voltage)
Stage 4: steepest sleep spindles, slowest delta waveform
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
insomnia, night terror, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea, serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress
sleep abnormalities, including difficulty in falling asleep and wakefulness through the night
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
pioneer in observational learning (AKA social learning), stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
three box/ information processing model
proposes that three stages that info passes through beofre it is stored; atkinson and shiffrin