AP U.S. History Ch.34-37

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John F. Kennedy

1961-1963. president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.

Viet Cong

a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.

Bay of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Cuban Missile Crisis

an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.

Lyndon Johnson

the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism. signed Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Voting Rights Act of 1964

Right to vote to anyone and cannot be denied vote because of race, gender, ethicity, or national origin. Stopped literacy tests on blacks

"Great Society"

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

March on Washington, 1963

August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.

Presidential Election of 1964

...

Barry Goldwater

1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history

24th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.

William Westermoreland

top U.S commander in Vietnam, requested 150,000 U.S troops

Operation "Rolling Thunder"

was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.

Tet Offensive

1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

Gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures" to repel any attacks and "to prevent further aggression." The resolution became the legal basis for a war that would last for eight more years.

"Miranda vs. Arizona" (1966)

miranda accused of raping a women, he was told he was identified and he wrote out a statement, did not have a lawyer, was not informed of his rights Supreme Court ruled in favor in 6/14 amendment and ruled in favor of miranda but there was another trial that proved him guilty. Miranda Rights must forever be given.. "You have the right to remain silent anything you say....etc."

Robert Kennedy

John Kennedy's brother who served as attorney general and gradually embraced growing civil rights reform; later, as senator from New York, he made a run for the Democratic presidential nomination. An assassin ended his campaign on June 6, 1968. Nixon became president

George Wallace

racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot

Presidential Election of 1968

election between Republican Richard Nixon, Democratic Hubert Humphrey, and southern third-party candidate, George Wallace; Nixon promises unity and appeals to "nonshouters" and "nondemonstrators"; Wallace, who had pushed for segregation and use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam, draws votes in South; Nixon wins by small margin

"Silent Majority"

label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s

Richard M. Nixon

elected in 1968 and 1972 for republicans. responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization"- withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in Détente-a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beijing. resign due to Watergate scandal.resigned on August 8, 1974.took the U.S off gold standard.

"Pentagon Papers"

A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.

Ralph Nader

A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles.

Cesar Chavez

Organized Union Farm Workers(UFW);help migratory farm workers (Mexican-American) gain better pay & working conditions

Rachel Carson

published Silent Spring in 1962; documented the environmental damage done by DDT and other pesticides. Which heightened public awareness at the start of the modern environmental movement.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Republican Party in the South

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26th Amendment

Ratified 1971. Standardized the voting age from 21 to 18.

Presidential Election of 1972

• Richard Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew elected
• Defeated: Democrat George McGovern and Independent George Wallace
• Landslide victory for Nixon - 61% popular vote and almost all electoral votes

"Détente"

relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China

Stagflation

During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.

"Roe vs. Wade" (1973)

women have absolute right to an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy based on a constitutionally protected right of privacy; the state can impose restrictions in the second and third trimesters

1973 Oil Embargo

After the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U.S. and caused a crisis.

Watergate Scandal

A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.

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