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CHAPTER SIX

Social Group

A collection of two or more people who frequently interact with one another (History Club)

Aggregate

A collection of people who happen to be at the same place at the same time but have little else in common (Bus stop)

Category

A number of people who never of met one another but share a similar characteristic such as age, race, or gender

Secondary Group

Sociologist Charles H. Cooley's Theory larger more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal goal oriented relationships for a limited amount of time

Primary Group

Sociologist Charles H. Cooley's theory to describe small less specialized group in which members engage in face to face emotion based interactions over an extended amount of time.

Dyad Sumner

A group composed of two members

Tryad Sumner

a group composed of three members

Ingroup

William Graham Sumners Theroy where a group to which a person belongs and with which a person feels a sense of identity

Outgroup

William Graham Sumners Theroy a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility

Reference Group

A group that strongly influences a persons behavior and social attitudes regardless if the person is a member

Network

A web of social relationships that link one person with other people and through them with other people they know (facebook)

Expressive

Emotional needs especially those involving soft expression and support from family

Instrumental

According to functionalist task oriented needs needs can not always be met by one person so the group work cooperatively to fill a specific goal

George Simmel

Sociologist who suggested that small groups have distinctive interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups. (Dyad and Tryad theories)

Conformity Size

amount of people who conform in a group

Absolute Size

Number of members a group actually has

Relative Size

Number of potential members a group has

Functionalist Perspective

sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly socity

Instrumental Leadership

Goal or task oriented leadership

Expressive Leadership

provides emotional support for members

Leadership Characteristics

instrumental leadership and expressive and leadership

Lassez Fair

leaders who are minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions

Authoritarian

leaders who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members

Democratic

encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building

Conformity

the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by society, sub cultural, or other group

Compliance

...

Obedience

listening to orders of an authority figure

Sexual Harassment

more likely to occur when encouraged by others. Its a bad bad thing. Consist of unwanted sexual advances, request for sexual favors, or other verbal, physical conduct of sexual nature.

Group Conformity

everyone in a group conforming

Group Think

is the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately think is unwise. (Elevator Guy)

Social Change

...

Rational Choice

...

UTILITARIANISM

a belief that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest amount of people

SELF-INTEREST

is the basic motivating factor in peoples interactions

SOCIAL EXCHANGE

...

RATIONAL CHOICE

based on the assumption that social life can be explained by using models of rational individual action

FORMAL ORGANIZATION

a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner

NORMATIVE

they pursue some common interest or gain personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member (political parties)

COERCIVE

organizations or associations that people are forced to join

BUREAUCRACY

an organization or model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and procedures, and personality, and in personnel

Weber

sociologist interested in bureaucracy that accelerated during the industrial revolution

Rationality

According to Weber it is the process by which traditional methods of social organization characterize by informality and spontaneity, or gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures

CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY

Division of labor, hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations, qualification based employment, impersonalty

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