The anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm
The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the
This is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart.
This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.
Anterior interventricular sulcus.
These muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?
Aortic semilunar valve
In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly
through atrioventricular valves
Which valve below prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Which of the following is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?
What of the following chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?
Right atrium and right ventricle
Which of the following blood vessels is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?
Which of the following types of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?
This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
Cardiac conduction system
Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of structures that a cardiac action potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart?
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers.
In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for ____ period of time.
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each inute is called the
This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises.
During which of the following period does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?
The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which of the events listed below?
Semilunar valves closing.
This structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.
This part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate.
Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?
Increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility.
Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the ____ ventricle into the ____ each minute.
Left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk.
The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the
What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?
Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium.
Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which
ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same.
Which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer of myocardium?
Which of the following conditions would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowing stroke volume and cardiac output?
In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all the following characteristics EXCEPT
a higher resting cardiac output.
During heart transplants, the ____ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.
A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.
which layer of the arterial wall is primarily composed to elastic and collagen fibers?
When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle layer contracts producing
a vascular spasm
In resting individuals, these vessels serve as a large blood reservoir from which blood can be quickly diverted to other vessels as needed.
Veins and venules.
Which of the following structures is used to control the flow of blood through a capillary bed?
The alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis is called
The largest driving force for pulling fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries is
blood colloid osmotic pressure
The pressure-driven movement of fluids and solutes from blood into interstitial fluid is called
The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels per minute is called
Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in arterial blood pressure?
Increased arteriolar vasodilation
Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in systemic vascular resistance?
Decreased length of the systemic circulatory route
Which of the following characteristics of blood depends mostly on the ratio of RBCs to plasma volume
Which of the following would be a normal response of the cardiovascular system to a decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?
Increased systemic vascular resistance
Which of the following hormones would NOT stimulate changes that lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
When chemoreceptors in blood vessels detect high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, they stimulate all of the following changes EXCEPT
decreased respiratory rate.
What do the following chemicals have in common: potassium, hydrogen ions, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and adenosine?
All potent vasodilators
In which of the following types of blood vessels is blood pressure NOT pulsing?
1. Arteries 2. Capillaries
3. Arterioles 4. Venules
Both 2 and 4
Abnormal conditions such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus cause a large increase in the
What do the following arteries have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery, and common carotid artery?
They are all common pulse points.
Which of the following would NOT occur in response to hypovolemic shock
Release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
All the veins of the systemic circulation eventually drain into the
superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.
Which of the following vessels carries the venous blood from the lower body into the right atrium?
Inferior vena cava
When the umbilical chord is tied after birth, the umbilical arteries close by filling in with
What would the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure be for an individual with a blood pressure of 120/80?
Which of the following effectors would NOT be activated as described below in response to hypovolemic shock?
Systemic arterioles vasodilate.
All of the following changes are commonly observed in the cardiovascular system in response to aging EXCEPT
Increased compliance of the aorta
Which of the following categories would an individual with a blood pressure of 145/95 be placed in?
Stage 1 hypertension
Which of the following categories of hypertension drugs lower blood pressure by blocking formation of angiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion?
Which of the following hormones stimulates proliferation of red blood cells in red bone marrow?
Towards the end of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a red blood cell loses its nucleus and becomes a
Which of the following blood cells is involves in reducing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel?
Which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions?
Which of the following blood cells phagocytizes antigen-antibody complexes and are effective against parasitic worms?
Which of the following blood cells are the main soldiers in the immune system defense of the body against microbial invaders?
The process of a white blood cell squeezing between endothelial cells to exit a blood vessel is called
Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of steps that occur during hemostasis in response to a damaged blood vessel?
Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, clotting
The intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood clotting are identical after formation of
Which of the following clotting factors is involved in strengthening and stabilizing a blood clot?
Which of the following situations could result in maternal antibodies attacking fetal blood cells during a second pregnancy?
Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive.
Which of the following opposes the action of thromboxane A2 by inhibiting platelet adhesion and release?
Which of the following antibodies would you find in the plasma of a person with type O blood?
anti-A and anti-B
Which of the following formed elements found in the blood are derived from reticulocytes?
Reduced vitamin B12 absorption from the small intestine due to reduced intrinsic factor production in the stomach results in condition called
A condition in which inadequate intake of vitamin B12 or folic acid causes production of large abnormal red blood cells is called
Stercobilin, a brown pigment that gives feces its characteristic color, and urobilin, a yellow pigment that gives urine its color, are both breakdown products of which of the following components of blood?
Which of the following formed elements in blood are removed by fixed macrophages in the spleen and liver after only 5 to 9 days in the circulation?
A cord-blood transplant involves obtaining the stem cells to transplant into the diseased patient from
the umbilical cord of a donor shortly after birth