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Cumulative Human Anatomy flash cards for final

The anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm

Mediastinum

The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the

Pericardium

The apex of the heart is normally pointed

to the left of the mid-line.

The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the

fibrous pericardium

This is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart.

Pericardial fluid

This layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and connective tissue

Epicardium

Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue?

Myocardium

This pouch-like structure increases the total filling capacity of the atrium.

Auricle

This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.

Anterior interventricular sulcus.

These muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.

Pectinate muscles.

Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

What type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart?

Dense connective tissue

Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?

Aortic semilunar valve

In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.

Ductus arteriosus

Contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly

into arteris

Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly

through atrioventricular valves

Which valve below prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Which of the following is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?

Aortic stenosis

What of the following chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?

Right atrium and right ventricle

Which of the following blood vessels is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?

coronary artery

Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by

gap junctions

Which of the following types of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?

Cardiac muscle

This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.

Cardiac conduction system

Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of structures that a cardiac action potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart?

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers.

In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for ____ period of time.

a longer

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each inute is called the

cardiac output.

This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises.

systole

During which of the following period does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?

Ventricular systole

The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which of the events listed below?

Semilunar valves closing.

This structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.

Sinoatrial node.

Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.

Vagus nerve

Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?

Increased potassium levels in plasma

This part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate.

Medulla oblongata

Which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?

T wave

Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?

Increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility.

Which of the following electrocardiogram (EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?

P wave

Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the ____ ventricle into the ____ each minute.

Left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk.

The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the

cardiac reserve.

What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?

Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium.

Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which

ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same.

Which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer of myocardium?

left ventricle

The process of listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope is referred to as

auscultation.

Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the ____ of the heart.

Valves

Which of the following conditions would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowing stroke volume and cardiac output?

hypertension

In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all the following characteristics EXCEPT

a higher resting cardiac output.

During heart transplants, the ____ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.

Vagus

A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.

cardiomyoplasty

Which of the following blood vessels carries blood away from the heart to other organs?

arteries

Which of the following blood vessels carries blood from the tissues back to the heart?

veins

Which layer of the arterial wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?

tunica media

which layer of the arterial wall is primarily composed to elastic and collagen fibers?

tunica externa

When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle layer contracts producing

a vascular spasm

Elastic arteries function as

pressure reservoirs.

In resting individuals, these vessels serve as a large blood reservoir from which blood can be quickly diverted to other vessels as needed.

Veins and venules.

This type of blood vessel plays a key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries.

Arterioles

Which of the following structures are found in veins but NOT in arteries?

Valve

Capillaries are also referred to as

exchange vessels.

Which of the following is the most important method of capillary exchange?

diffusion

Which of the following structures is used to control the flow of blood through a capillary bed?

precapillary sphincters

Which of the following types of tissues contains continuous capillaries?

all of these choices

The alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis is called

collateral circulation.

The largest driving force for pulling fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries is

blood colloid osmotic pressure

The pressure-driven movement of fluids and solutes from blood into interstitial fluid is called

filtration.

The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels per minute is called

cardiac output.

Cardiac output is dependent on both

heart rate and stroke volume

Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in arterial blood pressure?

Increased arteriolar vasodilation

Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in systemic vascular resistance?

Decreased length of the systemic circulatory route

Which of the following characteristics of blood depends mostly on the ratio of RBCs to plasma volume

blood viscosity

Circulation time

in a resting human is normally 1 minute

The cardiovascular center is located

in the medulla oblongata

All of the following aid in venous return of blood to heart EXCEPT

blood viscosity

Which of the following would be a normal response of the cardiovascular system to a decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?

Increased systemic vascular resistance

Which of the following hormones would NOT stimulate changes that lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

When chemoreceptors in blood vessels detect high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, they stimulate all of the following changes EXCEPT

decreased respiratory rate.

The myogenic response of smooth muscle results in

more forceful contractions when stretched.

What do the following chemicals have in common: potassium, hydrogen ions, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and adenosine?

All potent vasodilators

In which of the following types of blood vessels is blood pressure NOT pulsing?
1. Arteries 2. Capillaries
3. Arterioles 4. Venules

Both 2 and 4

Abnormal conditions such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus cause a large increase in the

pulse pressure

This type of shock is due to decreased blood volume.

Hypovolemic

What do the following arteries have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery, and common carotid artery?

They are all common pulse points.

Which of the following would NOT occur in response to hypovolemic shock

Release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

All the veins of the systemic circulation eventually drain into the

superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.

The pulmonary trunk divides into

right and left pulmonary arteries.

In fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?

Foramen ovale

Which of the following vessels is a pule point found at the wrist?

Radial artery

Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the intestines?

Mesenteric artery

Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the kidneys?

Renal artery

Which of the following vessels drains blood from the lower leg?

Tibial vein

Which of the following vessels drains blood from the head and neck?

Jugular vein

Which of the following vessels carries the venous blood from the lower body into the right atrium?

Inferior vena cava

When the umbilical chord is tied after birth, the umbilical arteries close by filling in with

connective tissue.

During embryonic development, blood vessels are formed by

angioblasts

During embryonic development, blood cells are formed from

pluripotent stem cells.

Normal blood pressure for a young adult male is

120/80.

Which of the following types of blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure?

arterioles

What would the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure be for an individual with a blood pressure of 120/80?

40; 93.3

Which of the following effectors would NOT be activated as described below in response to hypovolemic shock?

Systemic arterioles vasodilate.

The pulmonary circulatory route carries blood from the

right ventricle to the left atrium.

All of the following changes are commonly observed in the cardiovascular system in response to aging EXCEPT

Increased compliance of the aorta

Which of the following categories would an individual with a blood pressure of 145/95 be placed in?

Stage 1 hypertension

Which of the following categories of hypertension drugs lower blood pressure by blocking formation of angiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion?

ACE inhibitors

Which of the following is NOT a major function of the blood?

Production of oxygen

The normal average temperature of blood is around

100.4º F

The normal pH range for blood is

7.35 - 7.45

Which of the following is NOT a common component of circulating blood?

Hemocytoblasts

The hematocrit is a measure of the percentage of whole blood occupied by

RBCs.

What percentage of blood plasma is water?

91.5%

Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in disease resistance?

Globulins

Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?

Fibrinogen

The process by which the formed elements of the blood develop is called

hemopoiesis

A megakaryoblast will develop into

a platelet.

During hemopoiesis, some of the myeloid stem cells will eventually develop into

proerythroblasts.

Which of the following hormones stimulates proliferation of red blood cells in red bone marrow?

erythropoietin (EPO)

Approximately, how many hemoglobin molecules are found in each RBC?

280 million

Ferritin is a protein used to

store iron in the liver.

The major function of red blood cells is

gas transport.

Towards the end of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a red blood cell loses its nucleus and becomes a

reticulocyte.

Which of the following blood cells is a phagocyte?

Neutrophil

Which of the following blood cells is involves in reducing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel?

Platelet

Which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions?

Basophil

Which of the following blood cells phagocytizes antigen-antibody complexes and are effective against parasitic worms?

Eosinophil

Which of the following blood cells are the main soldiers in the immune system defense of the body against microbial invaders?

Lymphocyte

Which of the following cells is not an agranular leukocyte?

Basophil

The process of a white blood cell squeezing between endothelial cells to exit a blood vessel is called

emigration.

Which of the following chemical substances are NOT commonly released by mast cells?

Nitric oxide

Which of the following hormones stimulates the development of megakaryoblasts?

Thrombopoietin

Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of steps that occur during hemostasis in response to a damaged blood vessel?

Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, clotting

The intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood clotting are identical after formation of

prothrombinase

Which of the following clotting factors is involved in strengthening and stabilizing a blood clot?

Factor XIII

Which of the following situations could result in maternal antibodies attacking fetal blood cells during a second pregnancy?

Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive.

Which of the following opposes the action of thromboxane A2 by inhibiting platelet adhesion and release?

Prostacyclin

Which of the following substances is an anticoagulant produced by mast cells and basophils?

Heparin

Which of the following antibodies would you find in the plasma of a person with type O blood?

anti-A and anti-B

What blood type is a person if their plasma contains only anti-A agglutinin?

B

Which of the following precursor cells eventually give rise to neutrophils?

Myeloblast

Which of the following precursor cells eventually give rise to the platelets?

Megakaryoblast

Which of the following formed elements found in the blood are derived from reticulocytes?

Erythrocytes

Which of the following precursor cells give rise to agranular leukocytes?

Lymphoblast

Which of the following precursor cells give rise to granular leukocytes?

Myeloblast

Serum is

plasma without the clotting factors.

Reduced vitamin B12 absorption from the small intestine due to reduced intrinsic factor production in the stomach results in condition called

pernicious anemia

Destruction of red bone marrow due to radiation results in

aplastic anemia

A condition in which inadequate intake of vitamin B12 or folic acid causes production of large abnormal red blood cells is called

megaloblastic anemia.

Anemia is defined as

a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced.

Stercobilin, a brown pigment that gives feces its characteristic color, and urobilin, a yellow pigment that gives urine its color, are both breakdown products of which of the following components of blood?

Heme

The average life span of an erythrocyte in the circulation is

120 days.

Which of the following are characteristics of BOTH erythrocytes and thromobocytes?

no nucleus

Which of the following formed elements in blood are removed by fixed macrophages in the spleen and liver after only 5 to 9 days in the circulation?

thrombocytes

A cord-blood transplant involves obtaining the stem cells to transplant into the diseased patient from

the umbilical cord of a donor shortly after birth

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