The following, through stimulation of the cardiac plexus, most specifically increases the heart rate
the sympathetic nervous system.
These affect the cardiac output of the heart:
The muscular layer controlling the lumen of a vessel is the
Approximately this volume of the body's blood is contained within the capillaries:
The red blood cells account for this percentage of the total blood volume:
The following types of hemorrhage is characterized by slow oozing bright red blood:
The following is the phase of clotting in which smooth muscle contracts:
Blood vessels that are lacerated longitudinally generally do
bleed very severely and for very long.
These conditions are likely to adversely affect the clotting process:
aggressive fluid resuscitation,
movement at the site of injury,
drugs such as aspirin.
Fractures of the tibia or humerus can account for a blood loss of:
from 500 to 750 mL.
In this stage of hemorrhage the patient first displays ineffective respiration:
the fourth stage.
The female in late pregnancy is likely to have a blood volume that is
much greater than normal.
A fast and weak pulse may be the first indication of developing
shock in the trauma patient.
Large hematomas can account for a blood loss of:
up to 500 mL.
Frank blood in the stool is called:
For the patient in compensated shock, you should perform an ongoing assessment:
every 5 minutes,
after every major intervention,
after noting any change in signs or symptoms.
The systolic blood pressure reflects the
strength of cardiac output and
the volume of cardiac output.
These are the result of sympathetic nervous system stimulation
increased heart rate,
increased peripheral vascular resistance,
increased cardiac contractility,
skeletal muscle vasodilation.
This is a catecholamine:
This is a potent vasoconstrictor:
The opening of postcapillary sphincters and the resulting release of potassium, acids, and hypoxic blood is called
During this stage of shock, it is difficult to determine if the patient is suffering from the effects of hypovolemia:
These occur during the decompensated stage of shock:
Pulses become unpalpable,
respirations slow or cease,
blood pressure decreases precipitously,
the patient becomes unconscious.
The color, temperature, and general appearance of the skin can indicate shock before
there are changes in the blood pressure.
These will permit the least fluid flow through a catheter:
long length, small lumen
The preferred solution for the patient who is losing blood is