While on plantations slaves created their own culture such as the language pidgin, religion, and the importance of family. This showed that no matter what blacks would not lose their faith.
A rebellion by the indentured servants in early colonial years that exposed the problem of their unreliability which in turn played a major role in the developing push for slavery in the "new world"
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
network of clandestine routes by which African slaves in the 19th century United States attempted to escape to free states, or as far north as Canada It allowed thousands of slaves to escape to freedom.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became one of the great American anti-slavery leaders of the 1800s. Douglass was born into slavery in Maryland but in 1838, at age 20, he escaped to freedom in New York. A few years later he went to work for abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, travelling and speaking on behalf of Garrison's paper The Liberator. Douglass published his memoir Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave in 1845. Eloquent, smart and determined, Douglass gained fame as a speaker, began his own anti-slavery publications and became a 'conductor' on the Underground Railroad. In later years he became a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln and helped persuade Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. He also was a strong supporter of women's rights. He is often described as the founder of the American civil rights movement.
fugitive slave act
a law put into practice in September of 1850, that made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest slaves in free states as well as slave states; slaves captured under the law were not allowed to testify for themselves and were not allowed to have a trial with a jury
1820, (JMon) , The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
states in which supported slavery: Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Marlyland, and Delaware
states in which did not allow slavery: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine
where the people of an area are to vote on issues to decied if they become law or not instead of having representatives. For example when Kansas was annexed into the U.S. they let the people decied if it was to become a slave state or free state through popular soveirty
: was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
free soil party
formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men," it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homesteads, cheap postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren (1848) and John Hale (1852) for president and was absorbed into the Republican Party by 1856.
nat turner rebellion
largest slave rebellion; seventy escaped slaves killed white families throughout the South hoping to spark a massive slave rebellion; it ultimately failed
when small vigilante mobs or elaborately organized community events where an individual (typically black) was publicly hung due to a crime (true or perceived). Resulted from white supremacy or fear of black sexuality.
Large commercial estates where many laborers lived on the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner
The rice patty fields where cultivated by African Americans and was much harder and strenuous than the tobacco fields
1617 (1st shipment of this product), Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown
Was the bay that Jamestown was built upon. This was also a favorite fishing spot of the Powhatan confederacy which would later cause problems with the English. Maryland was also later built on around this body of water.
The trade that worked on a Transatlantic network. Europeans transported manufactured goods to Africa. The Africans sent slaves and Gold to the Americas. The Americas sent sugar, molasses, and cotton to Europe
Obtained from Africa, used as slaves; largest single no English group; they accounted for nearly 20% of the colonial population
Atlantic slave trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
a person seeking the legal end of slavery in the United States, someone who joined the movement to abolish, or end, slavery
American Anti Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a pro-slavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
Uncle Toms Cabin
written by Harriet beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced England's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
slaves counted as 3/5th of a person so they could be considered for both population (affected House of Representatives) and for taxation purposes
law and order party
party organized against slaver
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
laws meant to govern the slave system of labor; these laws made it impossible for an African American to live as a free person.
Argued that Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. Advocated nullification- theory that US could invalidate any unconstitutional law. Thought states were sovereign.
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
A beating with a strap, stick, or whip as punishment
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Americans reasoning behind expanding westward all the way out to the Pacific Ocean as their "god given right" that caused many problems between the North and South as if slavery should expand westward with them.
plant grown throughout the caribean during the colonial period, whose sweet sap is used to make sugar and molasses
Indians were the first inhabitants, and then, In 1492, the explorer Christopher Columbus became the first European to arrive at the islands. It's believed by historians that he first stepped foot in the Bahamas. Columbus called these islands the Indies because he thought he had finally reached Asia (and the East Indies). Spain, when Columbus' mistake was discovered, renamed them the West Indies, to distinguish them from the Spice Islands in the Pacific Ocean, which we now call Indonesia.
Head-rights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
an eastern region of the continent of Africa that is made up of the countries of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia.
Royal African company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
deciduous sub shrub of southeastern Asia having pinnate leaves and clusters of red or purple flowers
a deleterious change in the body's condition in response to destabilizing factors, such as nutrition, chemicals, or biological agents
Individually, it is the belief that the members of another race are inferior; institutionally it consists of established laws, customs, and practices which systematically reflect and produce racial inequalities in US society.
the forced breeding of slaves to try and produce the "best" or ideal slave for work
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
A person or persons with no rights who is forced to work for no pay
second great awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Americans with African decent