"Les Six" (Neo-Classicism . . . Sort of; French, like Russian 5 were Russian) The Russian six. Group of early 20th century French composers : Milhaud, Poulenc , Honegger, Auric, Durey and Tailleferre
French poet, librettist, novelist, actor, film director and painter
Term coined in the 1920s to describe a kind of new realism in music, in reaction to the emotional intensity of the late ROMANTICS and the EXPRESSIONISM of Schoenberg and Berg.
(German "utilitarian music" or "music for use") Term from the 1920s to describe music that was socially relevant and useful, especially music for amateurs, children, or workers to play or sing.
Hindemith developed a neo-Romantic style that uses harmonic fluctuation. Harmonic fluctuation is a harmonic method based on growing dissonance and eventual return to consonance.
conductor, organist and one of the most influential teachers of musical composition of the 20th century
Term coined by Edgard Varèse for a body of sounds characterized by a particular TIMBRE, register, RHYTHM, or MELODIC gesture, which may remain stable or may be transformed as it recurs.
Term coined by Henry Cowell for a CHORD of DIATONIC or CHROMATIC seconds.
an umbrella term used by the music industry and by music journalists in the United States, primarily during 1982 and 1983 to describe music acts who had come to commercial success in the United States through the cable music channel MTV. ...
Term coined in the 1950s for music that reflected the tastes and styles popular with the teen and young adult market.
African-American style of POPULAR MUSIC, originating in the 1940s, that featured a vocalist or vocal quartet, PIANO or organ, electric guitar, bass, and drums, and songs built on TWELVE-BAR BLUES or POPULAR SONG formulas.
rock and roll
A musical style that emerged in the United States in the mid-1950s as a blend of black and white traditions of POPULAR MUSIC, primarily RHYTHM-AND-BLUES, COUNTRY MUSIC, POP MUSIC, and TIN PAN ALLEY.
a term that originated during the 1960s to describe the intense fan frenzy directed toward The Beatles during the early years of their success. The word is similar to the much earlier term Lisztomania, used to describe fan reaction to the concerts of pianist Franz Liszt.
a form of psychedelic rock, which is characterized by long instrumental solos, few (if any) lyrics and musical improvisation.
a type of music based on rock which experiments with the basic elements of the genre, and/or which pushes the boundaries of common composition and performance technique.
(1) Music of unknown authorship from a particular region or people, passed down through oral tradition. (2) In the decades after World War II, a type of POPULAR MUSIC that drew on folk traditions, which included both genuine FOLK SONGS and POPULAR SONGS.
The leading African-American tradition of POPULAR MUSIC in the 1960s that combined elements of RHYTHM-AND-BLUES and gospel singing in songs on love, sex, and other secular subjects.
Music released on or reminiscent of the US record label Tamla Motown. The first black-owned record company in the US, Tamla Motown was founded in Detroit in 1959 by Berry Gordy, and was important in popularizing soul music, producing artists such as the Supremes, Stevie Wonder, and Marvin Gaye
comes from the Southwestern US. Combined mexican mariachi music with american country music
A type of dance music that emerged in the 1960s combining elements of Cuban dance styles with JAZZ, ROCK, and Puerto Rican music.
A style of JAZZ developed in New York in the 1940s that had a diversified RHYTHMIC texture, enriched HARMONIC vocabulary, and an emphasis on IMPROVISATION with rapid MELODIES and asymmetrical PHRASES. bel canto (Italian, "beautiful singing") Elegant Italian vocal style of the early nineteenth century marked by lyrical, embellished, and florid melodies that show off the beauty, agility, and fluency of the singer's voice.
Miles Davis developed a more relaxed jazz style. The Modern Jazz Quartet and Dave Brubeck (b. 1920) took up the style. Cool jazz returned the composer-arranger to a prominent role.
An experimental JAZZ style introduced in the 1960s by Ornette Coleman, using IMPROVISATION that disregards the standard FORMS and conventions of jazz..
An invention of John Cage in which various objects-such as pennies, bolts, screws, or pieces of wood, rubber, plastic, or slit bamboo-are inserted between the strings of a PIANO, resulting in complex percussive sounds when the piano is played from the keyboard.
Approach to composing music pioneered by John Cage, in which some of the decisions normally made by the composer are instead determined through random procedures, such as tossing coins. Chance differs from INDETERMINACY but shares with it the result that the sounds in the music do not convey an intention and are therefore to be experienced only as pure sound.
An approach to composition, pioneered by John Cage, in which the composer leaves certain aspects of the music unspecified. Should not be confused with CHANCE.
The application of the principles of the TWELVE-TONE METHOD to musical parameters other than pitch, including duration, intensities, and TIMBRES. See SERIAL MUSIC.
Carter developed a technique known as metric modulation. Transitions from one tempo and meter to another are through intermediary stages that share aspects of both. The results are precise proportional changes in the value of a durational unit. The first violin effects the metric modulation.
(French, "concrete music") Term coined by composers working in Paris in the 1940s for music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds, working "concretely" with sound itself rather than with music NOTATION.
Electronic instrument that generates and processes a wide variety of sounds. tablature A system of NOTATION used for LUTE or other plucked string instrument that tells the player which strings to pluck and where to place the fingers on the strings, rather than indicating which NOTES will result. Tablatures were also used for keyboard instruments until the seventeenth century.
A process of creating new COMPOSITIONS by patching together snippets of previously recorded music.
Trend of the late twentieth century that combines two or more of the arts, including music, to create a new kind of PERFORMANCE ART or musical theater.
one American composers who were versed in both jazz and classical music sought to merge the two in the 1950s and 1960s. Schuller, one of the most successful, called the combination "third stream."
70's hard driving style voicing teen alienation.
New Wave groups, such as Talking Heads, maintained the nihilism of punk but incorporated trained musical skills.
This is one type of alternative rock, a general term for rock music that is separate from the mainstream. Grunge.
Lady Macbeth of the Mtensk District
Shostakovich's opera that achieved great success
West Side Story
West Side Story (1957) is a retelling of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. In West Side Story, Bernstein employs a variety of styles, including Afro-Caribbean dances, jazz, and Tin Pan Alley melodies in AABA format.
Nixon in China
...John Adams. Nixon in China (1987) is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit to China. Minimalist techniques are combined with formal Baroque opera. Short, driving ideas constantly evolve.
rhymed lyrics chanted over repeated dance beats. Began in 1970's from urban youth culture.
One of the leading musical styles of the late twentieth century, in which materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures simplified so that what is going on in the music is immediately apparent. Often characterized by a constant pulse and many repetitions of simple RHYTHMIC, MELODIC, or HARMONIC patterns.
style that uses techniques of minimalism in combination with traditional methods, more varied material, and greater expressivity.
the rhythmic equivalent of cycling through the phase of two waveforms
Trend in the late twentieth century that blurs the boundaries between high and popular art, and in which styles of all epochs and cultures are equally available for creating music.
Term coined by Alfred Schnittke for a combination of newer and older musical styles created through QUOTATION or stylistic allusion.
A trend of the late twentieth century in which composers adopted the familiar tonal idiom of nineteenth-century ROMANTIC music and incorporated its sounds and gestures.
African popular music, called World Beat, reached international audiences. Musicians like Nigerian Fela Kuti (1938-1997) merged popular styles from the United States with local traditions. World Beat was assimilated by some Western artists, such as Paul Simon on his album Graceland (1986). All of these works are quintessentially Western, representing the centuries-old capacity of European music to absorb regional and foreign elements.