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Biomechanics

The application of the mechanical laws of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems, including plants and animals

Human Movement Biomechanics

The study of the structure and function of human beings using the principles and methods of mechanics of physics and engineering

Biomechanics of Physical Activity

Subdiscipline of kinesiology, use mechanical laws that determining how we move during physical activity, and how forces act on our bodies to affect the structure and functioning of our bodies

The seven sections of scholarly study of physical activity

Biomechanics, Physiology of physical activity, Philosophy of physical activity, History of physical activity, sociology of physical activity, motor behavior, and sport and exercise psych

Human Factors Engineers

People who design technology based on how people process information and respond to the information when performing a task

First major goal of human movement biomechanics

"Understanding how people use and are affected by the fundamental principles of mechanical physics and engineering that explain how forces influence our structure and function"

Second major goal of human movement biomechanics

"To apply to our theoretical understanding gained through attainment of the first major goal to determine how best to a. improve performance effectiveness or b. increase the safety and health of those body tissues that are affected by forces or those tissues involved in physical activity"

Anthropometry

Study of the physical dimensions of people

Qualitative Analysis

When a movement specialist observes the movement technique of a performer

Quantitative Analysis

If a tool is used to measure and evaluate quantities related to space, time, motion, force, or energy during a performance

Motion Measurement

The use of digital cameras and other motion-detection technology for recording motion in biomechanics

Force Platform

A metal plate with force transducers in the beams that hold up the plate, usually embedded solidly in the surface

Pressure

The amount of force applied to a given amount of surface area

Electromyography

Method for estimating forces, Measuring the electrical activity of the membranes of the muscle cells when nerve cells stimulate them to contract

Ground Reaction Force

Force that is generated any time you push against the ground because the ground pushes back, Can be created in any direction

Moment

Whenever a force is applied so that it causes an object to rotate

Profiles

Portrayals of biomechanical and other characteristics of a group of performers-- Elite athletes, athletes with disabilities, or novices

Elite Athlete Model

Profile strategy that assumes that elite or highly skilled performers must be using ideal technique to achieve their success

Normative Model

Using biomechanical values of the general population in a profile rather than values of highly skilled performers or elite athletes

Exercise Physiology or Exercise Science

A subdiscipline of the biophysical sphere, along with biomechanics of physical activity

Physiology

The study of how the body functions

Exercise

Form of physical activity engaged in to improve or regain performance, health, or bodily appearance

Sport Physiology

The application of "the concepts of exercise physiology to training the athlete and enhancing the athlete's sport performance"

A study reporting that American children were less fit than European Children and President Eisenhower's heart attack

What two events that happened in the 1950s that peaked America's interest in physical activity?

Gerontology

The study of aging

Clinical Exercise Physiologists

Physiologists who study the role that physical activity plays in disease management and rehabilitation

The muscle biopsy needle

The use of _________ by Bergstrom and Hultman to sample muscle tissue and examine muscle glycogen concentration during exercise resulted in one of the most important advances in exercise physiology

Oxygen Debt

Excess oxygen consumption following exercise

Hypertension

High blood pressure

Method Used to determine maximal oxygen uptake or VO2 Max

Increasing the intensity of exercise progressively until the person can no longer maintain the required exercise intensity

Hydrostatic Weighing or Underwater Weighing

The gold standard for determining body composition in humans, The individual is weighed while submerged under water, Makes use of Archimedes' principle

Myofibrils

Inside of the muscle fiber, contain the contractile elements that shorten to generate force and move your bones during physical activity, There are three main types

Fast Glycolytic (FG) Fibers

Fast-twitch fibers that use almost exclusively anaerobic energy systems, Create the most force and power but fatigue rapidly

Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG)

Fast-twitch fibers that use both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The primary source of energy for muscle contraction, high-energy phosphate

ATP-Phosphocreatine System, Glycolytic System, Aerobic System

What are the three primary energy systems used to generate the ATP that muscles need during physical activity?

Muscular Strength

The maximal amount of force exerted by a muscle group

Muscular Power

The product of the force times the speed of movement

Muscular Endurance

The ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force over a prolonged period

Isometric Exercise

Tension is produced without muscle length

Isotonic Exercise

Muscle changes length without changing tension

Isokinetic Exercise

Muscle changes length at a constant rate of velocity

Progressive overload

Training principle in which the exerciser must overload the muscle group in order for strength to increase

Hypertrophy

Increase in size of individual muscle fibers

Hyperplasia

Muscle fibers split and increase

Cardiac Output

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute, function of both the heart rate and stroke volume

Stroke Volume

Amount of blood pumped per beat

Cardiovascular Endurance

Ability to exercise at moderate to heavy intensities for prolonged periods

Ventilation

The process of moving air in and out of the lungs

Minute volume

The amount of air exhaled per minute

Tidal Volume

The amount of air exhaled per breath

Respiratory Frequency

The number of breaths per minute

Ventilatory Threshold

The point at which your breathing begins to increase rapidly

Maximal Ventilation

The amount of air entering and leaving your lungs

Metabolic Rate

The rate at which the body uses energy

Hypothermia

Below-normal body temperatures

Carbohydrate Loading

Technique used by endurance athletes with a diet high in carbohydrates in order to increase muscle glycogen storage

Angioplasty

Procedure used to open or block narrow coronary vessels

Five Spheres of Professional Practice Centered in Physical Activity

Health and fitness, Therapeutic exercise, Sport management, Coaching and sport education, teaching physical education

Coronary Heart Disease

The leading cause of mortality in the US

Healthy People 2010 Objective 7-5

A program to increase the number of companies that offer comprehensive employee health promotion programs

O'Donnell's Definition of Health Promotion

The art and science of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health

Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, Spiritual, Social

What are the five dimensions of the Multidimensional Model of Wellness?

Therapeutic Exercise

The systematic and scientific application of exercise and movement experiences to develop or restore muscular strength, endurance, or flexibility

Rehabilitation

Processes and treatments that restore skills or functions that were previously acquired but that have been lost because of injury, disease, or behavioral traits

Habilitation

The process and treatments leading to the acquisition of skills and functions that are normal and expected for an individual of a particular age and status

Habilitational Therapeutic Exercise

When a physical therapist is attempting to correct congenital postural problems

Rehabilitational Therapeutic Exercise

Restoring the patient's physical skills and functions, reduces the risk of reinjury and of suffering different types of injury

Physical Dysfunction

The inability to use one or more limbs or the torso

Sports Medicine

An aspect of therapeutic exercise that is exclusively dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries

Prehabilitation

Occurs following the injury but before surgery

Private Practice

The entrepreneurial venture in which the professional establishes his or her own place of work

Athletic Training

A healthcare profession that addresses the prevention, evaluation, management, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries and other conditions experienced by athletes and other physically active individuals

Occupational Therapist

Therapist who assists people with physical, emotional, or mental disabilities to restore or maintain as much independence as possible in daily living and work throughout their lives

Physical Therapist

Therapist who is educated to provide rehabilitative care to a diverse patient population with a ride range of injuries, illnesses, and diseases

Cardiopulmonary

Specialty of PT, Treatment of patients with acute or chronic diseases of the cardiovascular or respiratory system

Clinical Electrophysiology

Specialty of PT, Measurement of normal and abnormal electrical activity within the human body

Geriatrics

Specialty of PT, Conditions related to aging or other problems associated with older members of the population

Neurology

Specialty of PT, Treatment patients with injuries or diseases of the brain and nervous system

Orthopedics

Specialty of PT, Treatment of patients with injuries or diseases of the muscles, bones, and joints

Pediatrics

Specialty of PT, Treatment of children in health and disease during development from birth through adolescence

Sports Physical Therapy

Specialty of PT, Treatment of an athletic population, normally people who have incurred injuries as the result of competition

Class Management

Organizing students in such a way that learning is most likely to occur

Discipline

Teaching rules, enforcing them when they are broken, and rewarding exceptional behavior

Competent Bystanders

Well-behaved students who consistently avoided participation without attracting notice

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy or Pygmalion Effect

When a teacher has expectations of a child that influence the child to behave precisely in accordance with the expectations

Federal Laws stipulating that children with disabilities will be provided with a physical education program

94-142, 101-476, and 105-17

Dudley Sargent

Medical Degree from Yale, Circus Acrobat, Directed Hemmingway Gymnasium at Harvard, Developer of Weight Training, Instituted the Harvard Summer School of Physical Education

Delphine Hannah

Spent most of her career at Oberlin College, First female professor of physical education, Trained many of the early leaders of physical education, Orthopedics Specialist, Strong advocate of the Swedish Medical System, Development of scientific curriculum for physical education teachers

Amy Morris Homans

Not formally trained in physical education, Philanthropist who founded the Boston normal school for gymnastics, First director of Mary Hemenway College

Franklin Henry

Proposed the creations of the sub-disciplines: Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, Exercise sport and psychology and motor development

Physical Education

A part of school curriculum that offers the best opportunity to provide physical activity to all children and to teach them the skills and knowledge needed to establish and sustain an active lifestyle

Pedagogy

The art, science or profession of teaching

5 essential teaching elements

Safe, secure, and comfortable learning environment; Communicate clear expectations; Provide and control KP and KR; Ensure enough successful practice; Guarantee they perceive they are learning and making progress

American Public Health Association, Medical Fitness Association, American College of Sports Medicine, Medical Wellness Association, National Strength and Conditioning Association

Name 5 Professional Health and Fitness Membership Associations

Odds

Risk/(1-Risk)

Relative Risk

Experimental Group Injury Risk/ Control Group Injury Risk

Relative Risk Reduction

(1-Relative Risk) * 100

Absolute Risk Reduction

Control Group Injury Risk - Experimental Group Injury Risk

Numbers Needed to Treat

1/(Absolute Risk Reduction)

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