"Ottoman Empire" Nature of ethnic/religious diversity and toleration
Extremely diverse in both ways. Ottomans were far more tolerant than anywhere else in Europe.
"Ottoman Empire" Milletes
Ottoman sultans who governed their empire through these units of officially recognized religious communities.
"Ottoman Empire" Devshirme
act of recruiting their most elite troops from Christian communities usually in the Balkans. These boys were raised Muslim and organized into elite military units.
"Ottoman Empire" Janissaries
A famous group created from Devshirme. Thought this group of troops were extremely loyal to the sultan because they owed their life and status to the sultan.
"Ottoman Empire" Ulama
Muslim religious scholars. The primary protectors and interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies.
"Ottoman Empire" Siege of Vienna
Unsuccessful attempt of the Ottoman Empire. A result of the Ottomans overreaching their power rather than a deep decline in their power.
Romantic view of Ottoman/Middle Eastern culture
Some Romanticism cast the Ottoman Empire and Islam in an unfavorable political light, and other Romantics spoke of the value of their literature. Between Europe and the Ottoman Empire, a mutual idealistic view of the other culture, but no interest in adopting. Really the other European cultures saying "oh look how pretty and exoitic the Ottoman Empire is", but not engaging in its culture further.
"Revolt against Ottoman Rule in Balkans" Greek Revolution
Attracted the support and participation of many writers (byron). Liberals saw their own hopes crushed at home, imagined that the ancient Greek democracy was being reborn
"Revolt against Ottoman Rule in Balkans" Serbian Independence
1830 the Ottoman sultan formally granted independence to Serbia, and by the late 1830's the major powers granted serbia diplomatic recognition. Serbia's political structure, however, remained in doubt for many years.
"Revolt against Ottoman Rule in Balkans" Role of nationalism
19th century, a growing movement of nationalism, which doesn't fit with what an Empire is ( a multinational unit). The individual nations in the Empire cannot be individual while apart of the empire. SO, nationalism was a large factor in the breaking up the Ottoman Empire.
"Revolt against Ottoman Rule in Balkans" Role of Russian expansion
Russia was growing in power in 19th century and sought to usurp Ottoman lands, acted in defense of Slavic peoples in Ottoman Empire, but with ultimate goal of increasing its own power and influence
"The Crimean War" Russian interests
Keep protection over sight of Orthodox Christians in the Empire. 2nd, to extend control over the Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and Walachia (which is now Romaina).
"Reforms in Ottoman Empire" Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane
A decree/reform of enlightenment issued by the sultan that attempted to reorganized the empire's administration and military along European lines. Became known as the Tanzimat era of the Ottoman Empire. More civil rights such as more equal rights for Jews, Muslims and Christians. Economic liberalization. Rules to prevent corruption. More fair taxes. Criminal law (no torture). Printing presses allowed.
Islamic views of European culture
Islamic religious leaders rejected the West and modern thought. Al-afghani engaged in the Euro culture. He argued that western European has been developing for many many years, and they have had lots of things go wrong to have some enlightenment filter through. He thought that Islam needed more time to developed a more enlightened culture.
"War in the Balkans" Russo-Turkish War
Broke out in 1877, This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans. Also the Russians having a goal of recovering lost territories it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movements in attempt to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
"War in the Balkans" Treaty of San Stefano
March 1878, Russian triumph. Slavic states in the Balkans were freed of Ottoman rule, and Russia itself obtained territory and a large monetary indemnity. The settlement alarmed the other great powers. Austria reared an increase in Russian influence in the Balkans would threaten its own Balkan provinces. British feared a threat to British control of the Suez Canal.
"War in the Balkans" Congress of Berlin
Britian and Austria forced Russia to an international conference at which the other powers would review the provisions of San Stefano in June 1878. The decisions of the congress were a blow to Russian ambitions. Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans. The meeting led to greater nationalism.
"End of Ottoman Empire" Young Turks and First World War
Many Ottoman Empire military officers, the so-called Young Turks who had taken control of the Ottoman government in 1909, were pro-German. They decided to enter the war on the German side in November 1914. This decision ultimately brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire.
"End of Ottoman Empire" Mandates
Territories that were legally administered under the authority of the League of Nations but were in effect ruled as colonies.
"End of Ottoman Empire" Mustafa Kemal,
Considered founder of modern Republic of Turkey, was a military officer in the Ottoman Empire, after WW1 reorganized military/government to resist Allied military invasions and establish modern Turkey
"End of Ottoman Empire" Ottoman and Rest of European Empires
Separate but equal kind of thought. Tolerance of other cultures but distant.