French advocate of the divine right of kings
Marie de Medici
Ruled as Louis XIII's regent and appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the Council of Ministers.
Man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy. Politique ruler who divided France into 32 districts and revoked the portion of the Edict of Nantes that allowed Hugenots military rights. Sided against Catholic Habsburgs in Thirty Years War.
Anne of Austria
Mother of Louis XIV who served as regent. Depended on Italian Cardinal Mazarin.
Successor of Cardinal Richelieu who helped him build a centralized government. He crushed the Fronde.
Revolt trying to overthrow centralized government. Traumatized then-9 year old Louis XIV.
"I am the state," built Versailles, sold titles and officers, supported arts and sciences, nearly constant wars
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Five Great Farms
The internal tariff union set up by minister Colbert to increase trade inside France.
French Catholic minority similar to Calvinists.
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
War of the League of Augsburg
Louis XIV invaded the HRE, Spain, England, Sweden, and Dutch allied together and led to famine/depression for France
French speaking region between Burgundy and Switzerland and owned by Hapsburg's. Wanted by Louis XIV to extend France but meant dismembering HRE.
War of Spanish Succession
(1701-1714) Resulted from Louis XIV being offered the Spanish throne. All of Europe attacked France in this war.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession. Benefited England, which kept Gibraltar and received asiento, as well as Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Spanish Netherlands became Austrian Netherlands.
privilege to conduct slave trade with Spanish America
Reformed calendar that fixed the problem of the Roman calendar not matching the seasons.
The calendar now used internationally, devised by Pope Gregory in the 1580s to replace the Julian calendar, which by then had accumulated a ten-day discrepancy with the solar year.
Polish nobility who until 1768 possessed the right of life or death over their serfs. 8% of the population.
exploding the diet
Right of any member of the diet to shut it down by claiming liberum veto.
Elite Ottoman Military made of brainwashed Christian children.
This family came to power in the middle of the 1600s, arousing the Ottoman Empire to attempt further conquest in Eastern Europe.
Term due to Russia considering itself inheritor of Eastern Christianity.
Grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible and first Romanov.
Leader of a large Russian peasant rebellion in 1670-1671, scared the nobility into clamping down on the peasantry and giving more authority to the tsar.
Great Northern War
War between Russia and Sweden over Latvia and Estonia during Peter the Great's reign. Russia won.
body created by Peter that made decisions for the Russian Orthodox church
Head of Holy Synod, a non-clergyperson.
Most traditional/fundamentalist Russian Christians.
window to the West
Hungarian nobility who accepted Habsburg monarchy.
Charles VI of Austria
Instituted the Pragmatic Sanction, forbidding the Hapsburg lands from ever dividing.
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Ruling family of Brandenburg; married into acquiring Prussia
Prussian, conservative, land-owning class
Known as the Great Elector, this man was the first Hohenzollern leader, to move toward absolute monarchy and built a militaristic state in Prussia/ Brandenburg.
Frederick William I
Son of Frederick I who became king of Prussia, doubled the size of Prussian Army; made it most efficient force in Europe
son of Frederick William who in 1701 became the first king of Prussia.
18th century artistic style of elaborate ornamentation
Law prohibiting non-Anglicans to hold political office.
the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland. Catholic who openly defied Test Act.
William and Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after the Glorious Revolution under constitutional monarchy
pretenders to the English throne
James II and his descendants, who lived in France
Dutch Reformed Church
Calvinist church in the Netherlands
Developed first microscope.
Improved Dutch telescope and viewed rings of Saturn. Also developed pendulum clocks.
Believed that God had no existence apart from the world, that everything was itself an aspect of God.
Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade.
Believed to be attached to the sun, moon, stars, and planets and moving around Earth.
Michel de Montaigne
"What do I know? Nothing."
reasoning based on patterns you observe
Italian anatomist who was the first to use a microscope to study anatomy and was among the first to recognize cells in animals. Father of Histology.
Regnier de Graaf
A Dutch physician that published the first book that accurately described the female reproductive system.
Developed smallpox inoculation.
Famous skeptic Huguenot critically examined religious beliefs wrote "Historical and Critical Dictionary"