7 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- -decrease production of neurotransmitters that transmit pain
- -change in pain etiology from tissue to physiologic impair-
ment including muscle guarding, abnormal movement, disuse, decreased endurance of back/abdominal muscles;
more area of pain matrix are activated and malfunctioning;
can also see depression, sleep disturbance, preoccupat.
with pain decreases activity, fatigue, emotional distress
- - (Sypatheric Reflex Dystrophy) abnormal response to trauma leading to limb disuse; disuse of limb precipitates an increase in levels of neurochemicals that cause peripheral inflammation, along with a decrease in sympathetic regulation of blood flow &swating; symptoms include pain, vascula changes, atrophy affecting entire hand/foot, red/pale skin, excessive sweating, edema, late stage dry/cold skin, muscle atrophy and osteoporosis.
- -cutting of a dorsal sensory nerve root
- -If peripheral sensory information is completely absent, CNS neurons in the nociceptive pathway become abnormally active
- -increases circulation th compression of tissue which decreases ischemic pain, a deficiency of blood (ischemia) results in a deficiency of 02 (hypoxia) which cause pain in tissue; pain from cramp is due to squeezing of capillaries & decreasing blood supply; when blood flow is interrupted,
pain-stimulating chemicals accumulate; applied heat dilates blood vessels, increasing blood flow/02 and decrea
sing the concentration of pain-stimulating substances; massage also simulates A-beta fibers thus activating the gating contrl mechanism
6 True/False questions
Sympathectamy → - partial excision of synpathetic nerves or ganglia
Phantom Limb Pain → -post amputation, absence of sensory info causes neurons in central nociceptive pathways to become overactive; maladaptive structural reorganization is found in the SC,
thalamus, and cerebral cortex; there is overlap of cortical reprsentation that are normally separate (loss of sensory info lighting up pain matrix)
Deafferentation → -tenderness/stiffness of muscles, aching pain, increased stress/sllep disorders, secondary hyperalsia, allodynia; abnormal activation of pain matrix with amplification of signals
1) PNS → -If peripheral sensory information is completely absent, CNS neurons in the nociceptive pathway become abnormally active
Mononeuropathy → -involve more than one nerve, such as diabetic neuropathy and Guillian Barre
Peripheral → -Aspirin/ibuprofin decreases synthesis of prostaglandins
preventing prostaglandins from sensitizing nociceptors.