UNIT TEST: world war 2 and the holocaust study guide

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fascism

a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

appeasement

practice of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war

munich conference

German city where conference was held giving Hitler permission to take the Sudetenland if he promised not to expand Germany territory further

sudetenland

The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
during World War II (1889-1945)

Lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

axis powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

allied powers

world war I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.

winston churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
leader during World War II

battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

battle of Stalingrad

a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter --> turning point of war in Eastern Europe

siege of Leningrad

German forces surrounded this Russian city, cutting off supplies. About one million people died of starvation and cold weather
1941-1942

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later

operation Barbarossa

Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies

Neutrality Act (1935)

(FDR) , reaction from Italy's act on Ethopia, no selling arms, The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk. The act was set to expire after six months

Lend-Lease Act (1941)

the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies.

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe, Day when the Germans surrendered

Harry Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Kamikaze pilots

Japanese suicide pilots who would crash their planes into ships and military bases in order to cause lots of damage.

island hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

Amphibious warfare

It integrates nearly all types of ships, aircraft, weapons, and landing forces in a concerted military effort against a hostile shore.

Atomic Bomb

a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
could destroy an entire city with one

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Nagasaki

site of 2nd Atomic Bomb, killing 40,000+ Japanese citizens (in japanese city) (August 9, 1945)

V-J Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945

Rape of Nanjing

Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China

8 stages of the Holocaust

...

Nuremberg Laws

Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.

"Final Solution"

final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers

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