Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures.
"Giant molecules" made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules (p. 45).
Process by which smaller units--monomers--are joined together to form larger compounds--polymers (p. 45).
The name for the smaller units that can be joined together to form a polymer (p. 45).
Formed by joining together smaller units called monomers (p. 45).
A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon; the four groups of these found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen to 1 oxygen; used by living things for energy and structural purposes (p. 45).
Single sugar; includes glucose, fructose, and galactose (p. 46).
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides (p. 46).
A polysaccharide used by animals to store excess sugar; often referred to as "animal starch" (p. 46).
A polysaccharide used by plants to store excess sugar (p. 46).
A tough, flexible polysaccharide that gives plants much of their strength and rigidity (p. 46).
Double sugar; includes sucrose (table sugar), maltose, and lactose.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule; monosaccharides can be joined this way to produce disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water; polysaccharides can be broken into monosaccharides by this method.
A disaccharide made of glucose + fructose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + glucose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + galactose.
The number of valence electrons in a carbon atom; carbon's ability to form long chains is due to its ability to bond to other carbon atoms and to form this number of covalent bonds.
The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate; the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen that is found in water--which is why "hydrate" is an appropriate part of the name "carbohydrate."