- green algae identified as the closest relatives of land plants. Share 4 Distinctive Traits with Land Plants: Rosette-shaped Cellulose-Synthesizing Complexes, Peroxisome Enzymes, Structure of Flagellated Sperm, Formation of a Phragmoplast
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
the woody part of plants: the supporting and water-conducting tissue, consisting primarily of tracheids and vessels
type of vascular tissue that carries nutrients and food from place to place inside the cell
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
gas exchange of plants
diffusion across leaf surfaces through tiny pores called stomata
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
a cell that can develop into a new organism without fusing with another cell.
A capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall.
Alternation of genrations
A life cycle that alternates between a sexual stage (gametophyte) and an asexual stage (sporophyte)
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
Moss life cycle
) egg and sperm join. 2) Zygote grows into sporophyte. 3) Spores are released. 4). Gametophytes frow from spores. 5) Female gametophytes produce eggs. Male gametophytes produce sperm.
Fern life cycle
1). Zygote develops into leafy fern plant. 2) the sporophyte. 3) Spores are released from spore cases and grow into tiny, heart-shaped gametophytes. Each gametophyte has both male and female structures. 4) Sperm swim to another gametophyte to fertilize eggs.
How is it possible for the fern gametophyte o prduce haploid gametes withut meisosis.
Alll the gametophyhte's cells are haploid, so there is mo need to reduce chromosome nibmer by meisosis to roduce haploid gametes.
Hkw di miss soerms travel frim male gameteangia to female gametangau, where fertilization of eggs occur?
The flagellated water sperm wim through a film of water.
In seed plants, a specialized structure within the sporophyte houses all reproductive stages, including...
spores, eggs, sperm, zygotes, and embryos
a specialized structure within the sporophyte houses all reproductive stages
in gymnosperms such as pines and other conifer
resembles a short stem bearing thick leaves.
Each "leaf", or scale,of the cone contains sporangia that produce spores by...
The two types of cones in pine trees, which produce spores that develop into male and female gametophytes
The smaller ones are called pollen cones
The larger ones are called
smaller of of the two types of cones
it will produce gametophytes
contains many sporangia, each of which makes numerous haploid spores by meisos.
develop form spores
mature pollen cone release million of microscopic pollen grains in great clouds
collects of cars or in puddles after it rains
carried by the wind
house cells will develop into sperm if by chance they land on a cone that contains a female gametophyte
Pollen cone reproduction
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
a simple pistil or one element of a compound pistil
the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
the part of the stamen that contains pollen
differ from algae in they way reproduce
why do scientists think plants move to land?
a symbiotic structure formed by a fungus and plant roots
An assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a a particular area
What is the relationship between a community and a population
A community sis a group of populations that interact each other
A sequence of food tranfers from producers through on to four levels of consumers in an ecosystem
An organism that makes organic food molecule from CO_2, H_2O and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic prokaryote
in the trophic structure of an ecosytem, an organism that eats plants or algae
an organism that eats primary consumers
an organism that eats secondary consumers
an organism that eats tertriary consumers
an organism wastes and dead orgnaism
prokaryotes and fungi that secrete enzymes that digest nutrients from organic material and convert them into inorganic forms
dead organic matter
the breakdown of organic material into inorganic ones
a netwrok of interconnecting food chains
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
The flow of energy from an ecosystem to an organism and from one organism to another.
The use and reuse of chemical elements such as carbon within an ecosystem
Why is the transfer of energy in an ecosystem referred to a energy flow, not energy cycling?
because energy passes through an ecosystem, entering as sunlight and leaving as heat. It is recycling within the ecosystem.