A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Societies with out a written language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.
when people with different languages have consistent spatial interaction and their languages collapse into one
when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed.
Languages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technoligically less advanced people have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders.
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward towards its origin
Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language.
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient latin, greek, and sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from scandinavia to north africa and from north america through parts of asia to australia
The language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.
The oldest, largest, and most widely distributed superfamily spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra del Fuego
youngest, smallest indigenous family language in Greenberg hypothesis
the the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
The branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
countries in which only one language is spoken
countries in which more than one language is spoken
two different speaking language people find a common language to communicate
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
A made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language.
the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.