the "rebirth" and golden age for Europeans out of the medieval times
sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles
a political system governed by a few people
the common people in Italian states
Italian military leaders who led their own mercenary armies
in Italy, one man ruled and handed down the right to rule to his son
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
written by machiavelli; about political power and how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests; "Better to be feared than loved"
a basic concern with the material world instead of the with the eternal world of spirit
northern humanists in countries such as the Low Countries, France, Germany, and England that interpreted ITalian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions based on their Christian ideals
a person who supports artists, especially financially
"estates", or medieval representative assemblies
"debate about women"
a debate about women's character and nature that has lasted for many centuries
French tax on salt
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy
War of Roses
War between the York and Lancaster houses for control of the English crown. The white rose symbolized the York House and the red rose symbolized the Lancaster House. By 1485, Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Ruchard III of York. Tudor set up a strong monarchy in England.
center of royal authority who governed at the national level
court of star chamber
Created by Henry VII with the sanction of Parliament in 1487, this court was intended to end the perversion of English justice by powerful nobles who used intimidation and bribery to win favorable verdicts in court cases. This court had the king's councilors as judges, and they were not moved by those tactics.
justices of peace
Tudors relied on these unpaid officials for military support
"brotherhoods" in Spain, revived by Ferdinand and Isabella
converts to Christianity