MSJC A&P- Chapter 26 Study Guide

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The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is____________.

glucose

____________ _______________must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth.

complete protein

Most_____________are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients.

vitamins

________________is a stabilizing component of plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones.

cholesterol

Biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy.

metabolism

The primary function of___________ ___________is to break down food molecules and generate ATP.

cellular respiration

A catabolic reaction based upon the conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

glycolysis

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all but the production of_________.

energy

Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish are all considered good sources of__________ ____________.

complete proteins

Negative nitrogen balance is when protein breakdown exceeds protein__________.

synthesis

The lipoproteins that remove cholesterol from the tissues are________.

HDL's

Dietary fats are important because they help the body absorb ___________vitamins.

fat-soluble

The term _________ _________reflects the energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities.

metabolic rate

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in urine is__________.

urea

Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by the enzymes ________________and______________.

dehydrogenase, oxidase

Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation describes the pathway of __________ ____________.

cellular respiration

_____________includes the reactions in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.

anabolism

______________is the process that breaks down complex structures into simpler ones.

catabolism

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as_____________.

lipolysis

________________occurs when cellular ATP and glucose levels are high.

lipogenesis

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ___________.

liver

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ___________state.

absorptive

The Krebs cycle takes place in the ____________ __________.

mitochondrial matrix

_________________is the process in which glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors such as glycerol and amino acids.

gluconeogenesis

The most abundant dietary lipids are______________.

triglycerides

The organ that synthesizes urea.

liver

__________metabolism is the most important function of the liver.

protein

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and__________are converted to glucose.

glycerol

__________ are nutrients that yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized.

fats

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include excessive amounts of_________in the diet.

protein

The hydrolysis of glycogen to release free glucose or glucose 1-phosphate. (catabolic)

glycogenolysis

Maintenance of a constant internal body temperature independent of the environmental temperature.

thermoregulation

G6P, PGAL,Pyruvic Acid, Acetyl CoA, Citric Acid is the metabolic order of intermediates in__________ and aerobic respiration.

glycolysis

The highest percentage of cholesterol is found in________.

LDL's

Of all the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis, most is produced by the_________ __________.

krebs cycle

Norepinephrine stimulates hunger for_____________.

carbohydrates

What fat soluble vitamin is not stored in the body?

K

The recommended daily allowance of protein is____g/kg of body weight per day.

0.8

Carbohydrates are found in blood glucose, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen, and in the oligosaccharides in the glycocalyx, but not in the _____________in the cell walls.

cellulose

Nitrogen balance is when nitrogen intake and output are___________.

equal

The ____vitamins are coenzymes that assist enzymes by transferring electrons from one metabolic reaction to another.

B

The synthesis of glycogen by polymerizing glucose. (anabolic)

glycogenesis

Many_________ _________function as electrolytes and govern the function of nerve and muscle cells, osmotically regulate the content and distribution of water in the body, and maintain blood volume.

mineral salts

Synthesizing fats from other types of molecules.

lipogenesis

_________one of the intermediates of glucose oxidation, can be converted to glycerol by lipogenesis.

PGAL

As glucose and amino acids enter the citric acid cycle by way of acetyl-CoA, the acetyl-CoA can also be diverted to make_________ _________.

fatty acids

_________ ________ are painful muscle spasms that result from excessive electrolyte loss in sweat.

heat cramps

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