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As creations of the state, counties are responsible for

enforcing state law, keeping many state records such as titles and deeds, collecting many state taxes, and conducting state elections

Every county in Texas, regardless of its size, is divided into

Four precients

County commissioners in Texas are elected by

precinct in partisan elections

An official who presides over the county commissioners court is

county judge

Except in the few counties using a unit system, the construction and maintenance of county roads and bridges is the responsibility of

individual county commissioners

Who is responsible for recording all legal county documents

County clerk

A typical county spends the largest share of its budget on

health and welfare programs

The most numerous type of government in Texas is

special districts

When cities are allowed to write their own constitutions in the form of a city charter they are called

home-rule cities

Cities in Texas with a population over ------ may choose to form their own city charters

5000

The form of municipal government in which the council acts as a policymaking body and appoints a chief administrator for the city is the

council-manager

In a strong mayor-council form of municipal government, the mayor

has the power to appoint and remove other city executives.

The city of ------ is the only large city in Texas that uses the mayor-council form of municipal government.

Houston

Criticisms of council-manager government include

a) the manager is not directly responsible to the voters which of the following and (b) the values of the business community tend to be promoted.

The ------ is said to have originated in Galveston near the turn of the century

commission form of government

Cities in Texas derive their revenues from

sales taxes, property taxes, user fees, and intergovernmental transfers.

----- is not a major item of expenditure for cities in Texas

education

Advocates of district elections argue that

(a) minorities and people without personal wealth have a better chance of being elected in district elections, (b) individuals elected in district elections are more likely to address the problems of the district, and (c) district elections are more likely to represent all political viewpoints.

In response to the tight revenue picture that cities face, cities ---- taken over certain private sector functions in order to gain economies of scale.

have not

The type of municipal election in which voters choose all of the members of the city council and vote for as many candidates as there are positions on the council is called an ----- system

at-large

It is believed that nonpartisan elections

may enhance the community's ability to effectively criticize the government in power.

Special districts have the advantage of

(a) being easy to establish and operate, (b) offering great flexibility to governmental organizations, (c) being able to remove technical problems from the political arena, and (d) bypassing the legal and organizational limitations of existing governments.

Councils of Government (COGs) function as

planning and coordinating bodies for local governments.

The number of school districts has been ----- in recent years

decreasing

The loss of population in metropolitan areas has not affected and will not affect

local government

Every county in Texas is divided into ---- precincts, each of which elects a ----

four, commissioner

Loving County has less than -- residents

75

However county officials are responsible for -------, they are not carefully supervised by state officials

administrating state laws and programs

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in ----- County that the precincts from which members of the county commissioners courts are elected must conform to the ----- rule.

Avery v. Midland, one person-one vote

The qualifications for county judge do not include

experience in the practice of law

The state legislature determines the ----- that counties can set

maximum property tax rates

County politics is characterized by

partisanship, precincts, and a long ballot

---- permits city governments to exercise some control over development in areas just beyond city boundaries

Extraterritorial jurisdiction

----- has been used by Texas cities as a means of avoiding the erosion of the tax base caused by the migration of the middle class to the ---

Annexation, suburbs

The ---- is not the most commonly used form of city government among home-rule municipalities in Texas.

mayor-council form

Proponents of ---- claim that it allows the separation of politics and administration and is, therefore, efficient

council-manager government

All city council elections in Texas are not conducted in ---

partisan form

Councils of Governments (COGs) are designed to ----

provide coordination between governments in metropolitan areas

The --- presides over and participates fully in the decisions of the commissioners court and receives, presents, and forwards to the secretary of state all election returns

county judge

Counties depend heavily on

local property taxes and on intergovernmental transfers

---- are two features of county government that illustrate its tendency toward inefficient management

Decentralized purchasing and the road and bridge system

A ----- is a unit of local government created by an act of the legislature to perform limited functions

special district

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