T/F: The fact that human genes inserted into bacteria produce proteins shows that the basic mechanisms of gene expression are different in bacteria and humans. (Change if false)
false, the same
T/F: To produce a recombinant plasmid, the plasmid and the foreign DNA are cut with a different restriction enzyme.
false, the same
T/F: Scientists use genetic markers to determine which cells have been successfully transformed.
T/F: Bacterial cells that have been transformed with a plasmid that carries a genetic marker for resistance to the antibiotic tetracyline will not survive in a culture treated with tetracyline.
false, will survive
The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms is called _____
Round up ready crops contain _____
a gene for round up resistance
What kind of techniques do scientists use to make transgenic organisms?
A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as ____
What could be seen as a possible eugenics movement?
germline genetic engineering
a bacterium takes in a plasmid
Which of the following includes all the others?
What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins?
transgenic bacteria can produce human proteins in large amounts
a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that don't is called a(n) ____
Suppose a bacterial culture were mixed with recombinant plasmids containing a gene for resistance to penicillin. The bacterial culture was then treated with penicillin. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
-Those bacteria that contain the plasmid will survive.
-The penicillin will kill the bacteria that were transformed.
-The gene for antibiotic resistance is expressed in the bacteria that survive.
-Those bacteria that are successfully transformed will survive.
The penicillin will kill the bacteria that were transformed
(See 13.1) What does figure 13.1 show?
a restriction enzyme producing a DNA fragment
(See 13.1) What are structures C and D called?
(See 13.1) Between which nucleotides is the DNA cut?
adenine and guanine
(See 13.1) Why are structures C and D important?
they allow two pieces of DNA to be joined together (spliced)
A recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell by ____
Why does the human insulin gene produce the same protein in humans and in transgenic bacteria?
all organisms use genes in the same way, gene expression is the same in all organisms, the same insulin gene is found in both humans and transgenic bacteria
What is often used as a genetic marker in plasmids?
gene for antibiotic resistance
Plasmids are naturally found in some ___
A transgenic organism that has extra copies of a gene produces more of the _____ that is coded for by that gene
Why do transgenic bacteria that have the gene for human insulin produce insulin in great abundance?
bacteria reproduce to create many offspring that will also produce insulin
(See 13.3) During which numbered step is transformation occuring?
(See 13.3) During which numbered step are bacteria reproducing?
(See 13.3) During which numbered step(s) is a restriction enzyme being used?
1 and 2
(see 13.3) Which numbered step produces a recombinant plasmid?
Bt crops contain a gene from ____
a type of bacteria
Bt crops have an additional gene that allows them to ____
produce a natural insecticide
Transgenic animals are animals that ____
contain genes from a foreign species, have recombinant DNA, are genetically engineered
Many ethicists argue that germline genetic modifications may be more ethically problematic than other forms of genetic modification because:
the effects are multigenerational, it could alter human evolution
Transgenic goats have been produced that have the ability to produce ____
Which of the following is a GMO?
-goat that produces human proteins
-cow with recombinant DNA
all of the above
What is most commonly used as a vector in gene therapy?
Attempts to correct genetic defects in the sperm, egg, or a very early embryo would be classified as ____
germline gene therapy (or germline engineering)
The introduction of healthy, therapeutic genes in attempts to correct a genetic disease or disorder is ______
A SCIDs patient has recently made a decision to participate in a cinical research trial in which he will receive a therapeutic gene in attempts to regain immune function. This is an example of ______
somatic cell gene therapy
How many pieces of DNA will be produced if the following DNA is digested with the restriction enzyme EcoRI? What kind of ends are produced?
EcoRI --- 5' G - AATTC 3'
3, sticky ends
Put the steps of the process of using transgenic bacteria to use human insulin in the correct order.
a. DNA ligase seals sticky ends (seals sugar-phosphate backbone of recombinant plasmid)
b. restriction enzyme is used to cut out the human insulin gene and to cut open plasmid
c. sticky ends are attracted to one another, nitrogen bases of sticky ends form H bonds
d. isolate the insulin
e. asexual reproduction
f. transformation occurs
b, c, a, f, e, d