a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances; an emotional tie with another person; it is shown in young children when they seek closeness with their caregiver and show distress when separated from their caregiver.
harlow and harlow
• Late 1950s psychologist
• Monkey experiment
• Spent time with cuddly mom most of the day, went to wire mother when hungry
• Debunked mother as food theory ATTACHMENT IS REALLY IMPORTANT
contact is one key to attachment. a second important factor is familiarity
practice of taking the baby right away and putting it onto tmom's chest. thought to "imprint" attachment to mom
majority of infants, confidenet to play if the caregiver is present and readily comforted; explores the room when mother is present, becomes upset and explores less when mother is not present, shows pleasure when mother returns
they don't get upset when the caregiver leaves; a form of insecure attachment in which child avoids mother and act coldly to her
insecure attachment = avoidant attachment AND anxious resistant (ambivalent) attachment ...... they're both anxious ambivalent, minority, avoids contact, alterntes between approach and avoidance
Van den Bloom
• Trained 50 mothers in responsiveness
• At 12 mos 62% showed secure attachment
attend to baby when they feel lie it, and ignore the baby when they feel like it
deprivation of attachment
• 30% of abused become abusers
• Lasting emotional wounds
• Possible brain change?
disruption of attachment
• Study shows that children who spent more than 20hrs/week in daycare during first year of life had...
o Less secure attachment in Strange Situation Task
o Greater levels of aggression
o Less compliant
o Worse relationship with their parents
disruption of attachment
• From a social development perspective, children of divorced parents show...
o More conduct problems
o Higher rates of depression
o Greater likelihood of dropping out of high school
o Could also be living in a stressful home environment
• Major social achievement during infancy is attachment
• Major social achievement during childhood is the development of a positive sense of self.
• Self Concept: Sense of one's own identity and personal worth.
• Strict standards of conduct
• Stern consequences for violations
• Don't need to explain the rules
• More likely to cheat for a prize when nobody was looking
• Less likely to feel guilt about misdeeds
• Less likely to confess when confronted
• Few explicit do's and don'ts
• Try not to assert authority
• Impose few restrictions and make few demands
• Exercise power, but also respond to child's opinions
• Children were most independent, competent, & socially responsible
Rejection by one individual of another individual, not on the basis of what he or she has done, but on the basis of prejudice, stereotypes, and biases.
explanations that refer to people's internal characteristics, moods, traits
weather, luck, accidents, external factors
does this person regularly behave this way in this stuation? i.e. does sarah always say she hates her classes? used when making attributions
does this person behave this way in many other situations? i.e. does sarah hate everything? used when making attributions
do many other people regularly behave this way in this situation? i.e. does everyone hate the class? used when making attributions
fundamental attribution error
when explaining other's behaviors, overemphasis on personal attributions and not situational - it's found across cultures, but is particularly strong in individualistic western cultures
one attributes their successes to personal attributions and their failures to situational attributions - again, it's found across cultures, but is particularly strong in individualistic western cultures
the first thing you come into contact to will stick in your mind better and be recalled better- whether it's a performance or say a presidential candidate's response to a question
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence; this interacts with and can work over, or be negated by the primacy effect
where you move mouth upside down and looks very unpleasent, but when face is upside down you don't face scan so the mouth and eyes appear normal
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
tendency to behave in ways that confirm your own expectations about others
The tendency to think better of attractive people than unattractive people and to make positive attributions about their behavior
tendency for people to favor and privilege in-group more than out group
negative feelings associated with stereotypes
unjustified treatment as a result of prejudice
people's evaluations of object, events, ideas ; feelings, often based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events. Attitudes are an evaluative reaction.
attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious
foot in the door
term describes a phenomenon in which people who agree to a small request are more likely to later agree to a larger request
uncomfortable mental state that occurs due to a contradiction between two attitudes or an attitude and a behavior
self perception theory
Theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors
active and conscious effort to change an attitude through a message
How believable we perceive the communicator to be.
(expertise, credibility, celebrity)
yerkes dodson law
• If a task is complex and we are still learning it, our dominant responses are likely to be incorrect ones so we make errors. (Performing in front of others will impair performance.)
• If a task is either simple or complex but well learned, our dominant responses usually are correct ones. (Performing in the presence of others will enhance performance.)
expected standards of conduct which influence behavior; Social norms are shared expectations about how people should think, feel and behave.
Implicit = unspoken rules
set of norms that characterize how people in a given social position ought to behave
when different roles have competing demands they clash
when the presence of others enhances performance
work less hard when you're working in a group.
reduced individuality, self-awareness, attention to personal standards... often in groups
altering one's behavior to mtch others or others expectations; the adjustment of individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs to a group standard.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Conducted famous CONFORMITY experiment that required subjects to match lines.
altering one's behaviors to match others or other's expectations
behavior that involves intention to harm
a psychological phenomenon in which someone is less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when other people are present and able to help than when he or she is alone.
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.
• Obedience to authority
• Terrible human tragedies were results of following others words
• Would ordinary citizens obey an authority figure if they were being asked to harm someone?
factors that influence obedience
• Remoteness of the victim: Obedience rate higher if the victim was out of sight
• Higher when the authority figure was on the scene
• Obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work
• Political orientation didn't make a difference or religious affiliation or occupation or education or military or psychological characteristic
• Prediction: Women will obey more because they are used to being obedient, or less because they are more empathetic: Outcome: Same as men
abu gra'ib soldier... "just following orders"
stanford prison experiment
Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty.
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
stable thoughts, emotional responses and behaviors over time; an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
freud's psychoanalytic theory
PERSONALITY THEORY: proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality.
Id, Ego, SuperEgo
completely submerged part of the personality, operates according to pleasure; strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
trues to satisfy the if while being responsive to the superego; mediates the demands of the id, superego, and reality.
internalization of standards of conduct; ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations.
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Tactics that reduce or redirect our anxiety by distorting reality: Repression: Keeping source from awareness
Regression:regressing to a younger age
Reaction formation: Warding off with opposite
Projection: Attributing unacceptable self traits to someone else
Rationalization: Making excuses for behavior
Displacement: Shifting attention of emotion
psyhco sexual stages
• Freud: developmental stages that correspond to libidinal urges, progression affects personality
PERSONALITY THEORY: approaches to studying personality that emphasize how people seek to fulfill their potential through greater self understanding
evaluating the psychoanalytic perspective
psychoanalytic theory is the first comprehensive theory of personality. It includes ideas about:
An unconscious region of the mind
Defense mechanisms for holding anxiety at bay... TODAY, most scientists believe it is not as black and white as freud made it out to be: see development as life-long and not fixed in childhood.
PERSONALITY THEORY: focuses on how people differ in personality dispositions
PERSONALITY THEORY:openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism - OCEAN is an acronym for this. it also includes the opposites of all these words.
social cognitivist perspective on personality
PERSONALITY THEORY: behavior and personality as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context. focuses on locus of control... WE ARE PRODUCTS OF OUR ENVIRONMENT
Social cognitive theory -We are products of our own environment and create our environment and bobo doll
PERSONALITY THEORY: refers to the interacting infuences between personality, environmental factors and behavioral
suggested that people tend to have a generalized disposition (a personality trait) acquired from past experience, to believe that rewards are either controllable or not controllable by their own efforts. LOCUS OF CONTROL
internal locus of control
perception that one controls one's own fate
External Locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
Any characteristic of a person's thoughts or actions or feelings that could be a potential indicator of a mental disorder.
DSM: assessment along 5 axes
depressive disorders and bipolar disorders
major depressive disorder
MOOD DISORDER: The person experiences prolonged hopelessness and lethargy until usually rebounding to normality. Lasts two weeks or more and are NOT caused by drugs or a medical condition. tend to explain bad events as stable, global, and internal.
MOOD DISORDER: depression not sever enough to be major depression... Must have a depressed mood most of the day, more days than not, for at least two years. Periods of Dysthymia last from 2-10 yrs, but typical duration is 5-10 years.
the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient
bi polar disorder
MOOD DISORDER: alternating periods of depression and mania
explanations for mental disorders
genetic influences, biochemical explanations, social-cognitive perspective.
split between thought and emotion, alteration in thoughts, perception
SCHIZOPHRENIA: Delusions, auditory hallucinations, little or no disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior
SCHIZOPHRENIA: Disorganized behavior and speech, not catatonic, brief periods of hallucinations
SCHIZOPHRENIA: At least 2: motor immobility, purposeless excessive motor activity, negativism, mutism
SCHIZOPHRENIA: no subtypes, but still SCHIZO
SCHIZOPHRENIA: has had at least one episode, but currently does not have prominent positive symptoms
false beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality
false sensory perceptions that are experiences without an external source
loosening of associations
patter of speech with disorganized or meaningless thoughts
Association of words similar in sound but not in meaning; words have no logical connection; may include rhyming and punning
Inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that impair one's social functioning.
avoidant personality disorder
easily hurt or embarrassed, few close friends, strict routines
paranoid personality disorder
tense, guarded, holds grudges
histrionic personality disorder
seductive, needs immediate gratification and constant reassurance
narcissistic personality disorder
self-absorbed, expects special treatment and adulation
dependent personality disorder
wants others to make decisions, fears being abandoned
is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy.
characterized by a need for social isolation, anxiety in social situations, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs
obsessive compulsive personality disorder
pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control.
borderline personality disorder
characterized by disturbances in indentity, affect and impulse
antisocial personality disorder
lack of empathy and remorse
serial killer, borderline, BTK Bind Torture Kill - antisocial personality disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
ANXIETY DISORDER: constant state of anxiety not associated with anything
The condition of nervousness and panic often accompanied by extreme anxiety.
ANXIETY DISORDER: exaggerated fear of an object or situation
ANXIETY DISORDER: fear of being negatively evaluated by others
ANXIETY DISORDER: fear of a specific object or situation
obsessive compulsive disorder
ANXIETY DISORDER: An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
ANXIETY DISORDER: sudden overwhelming attacks of terror
characterized as acute anxiety, accompanied by sharp increases in autonomic nervous system arousal - feelings that one is going to die
marked by fear of being in public
Post traumatic stress disorder
ANXIETY DISORDER: an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events
treatment based on the belief that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: help patients recognize maladaptive thoughts and replace them
cognitive behavioral therapy
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: combo of cognitive and behavioral
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: repeated exposure to an anxiety causing stimulus
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
virtual reality exposure theory
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: disulfiram/aversion therapy agent/ treats alcoholism
medical approach to treatment
the branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects and modes of action of drugs
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: treat psychosis disorders, block the effects of dopamine
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: promote relaxation
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: MAO inhibitors, SSRI's
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, bloc the reuptake of serotonin in the brain allowing it to stay in the synapses longer and alleviate depression
dialectical behavior therapy
BEHAVIOR THERAPY: a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal
refers to the interacting influences between personality, environmental factors, and behavior.... self fulfilling prophecy esque