japan, korea, and china

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chp.13 in the prentice hall world dictionary section.

Today, Hangul Day is a holiday in South Korea. Why do you think Koreans celebrate the creation of their alphabet ??

Because it wasn't just an alphabet. It was an innovation that led to the
-rise of social mobilityanyone could be literate
-independence/uniqueness from connection to China

How did Mongol conquest promote trade and cultural exchanges ??

The Pax Mongolica: Peace of Mongol when sons/grandsons of Genghiz Khan established peace
-They controlled the Silk road which improved trade throughout Mongol.
-Cultural diffusion brought new foods, tools, inventions, ideas, and techniques spread.

How did Kublai Khan rule in China ??

He prevented Mongols from being absorbed with Chinese civilizations like other conquerors have been. So:
-Mongols could have the highest government jobs.
-Only Mongols could serve in the military
-Chinese officials could rule in provinces.
-The Chinese despised their foreign conquerors, because they believed that it was unfair to them that they were conquered and not treated as equal as the Mongolians.
- Chinese and foreign customs started to develop
-Soon, foreigners were eventually let into China and Chinese products, such as gunpowder and porcelain, were introduced in Europe.

How did Ming emperors try to restore Chinese culture ??

- Revived the Confucianism way of learning
-Restored the civil service systemmade them more rigorous
-They supported and advocated for a flood of arts and literature
-Repaired canal systemimproved trade
-Chinese cities acquired numerous industries; porcelain,
-appealed to the Chinese and benefited them.paper, and tools
-Made the Chinese feel more included.
-New technologies-->increased output in manufacturing

•What early Chinese Japanese traditions were influenced by China- How did they try to preserve their own identity and culture ??

Chinese government never accepted civil service exams-(inheritance overcame)
Japanese rulers= heavenly emperors
Buddhist/ Confucianism values emerged
Emphasis on filial piety (superior vs. inferior)
Chinese foods
*****Later on, they used selective borrowing to take some aspects of Chinese culture, and to ignore others, so that they would be a unique, independent country.

•How was the Japanese development of kana similar to the Korean development of hangul ??

Both Kana and Hangul are developed from another language, and are pronounced logically based on phonetic letters.

What groups held the most power in feudal Japan--What values did Bushido emphasize ??

The Shoguns, because they were the supreme military commanders of the Feudalistic Japan.Bushido emphasized honor, bravery and absolute loyalty.

•Describe 3 results of the centralized feudalism imposed by the Tokugawas --Why do you think they wanted to restrict the role of women ??

Theater: Zen Buddhism, and power struggles were no longer a focus. KABUKI was a popular form of

Literature: Zen values were prioritized, HAIKUS started to emerge.drama/dance. Puppet plays known as BUNRAKU were also a focus.

Paint/Printmaking: Painters wrote important events on scrolls. Woodblock prints used colors/simple lines to convey town life.

How did growth of towns influence Japanese art and literature ??

The feudalistic age of Japan brought a lot of stories about conflict between two families, usually violent ones. As towns started to emerge, more people started to focus on Zen Buddhism values, nature, people, their surroundings, and cultures.

How was economic prosperity reflected in Qing china -- How did the Qing restrict trade with other nations ??

To the people of China, The Portuguese were southern barbarians. They believed that European textiles were inferior to the Chinese products, so they demanded gold/silver payment. Foreigners could only trade at Canton while being under strict supervision, and had to sail away after the trading season.

Why did Korea pursue a policy of isolation ??

Because they already became a tributary state to China, they were invaded by Japan and eventually were conquered by the Manchus. They felt like "a shrimp among two whales", or in other words, inferior to the Japanese and Chinese, so they started their own country and excluded all foreigners except very few selected Japanese and Chinese.

Why did the Japanese policy toward trade and foreigners change over time ??

Unlike the Koreans and the Chinese, the Japanese welcomed western traders, or at least at first. Later on they acquired western weapons and build European looking castles. However, the Tokugawas got expelled from foreign missionaries and persecuted Japanese Christians. Later, they banned Japanese to travel abroad. They also outlawed the building of huge ships and ended foreign trade. Internal trade boomed within Japan, and cities grew. Some merchants became wealthy and were given a chance to move up the social pyramid.

Yi-song gye=

A Korean general who set up the Choson dynasty.

Sejong=

1443: Korea's most celebrated ruler. He/experts developed hangul.

Celadon=

Porcelain with an unusual blue-green gaze.

Kublai Khan

randson of Genghiz Khan, who was the last Song emperor in 1279. Ruled all of China, Korea, Tibet and Vietnam.

Marco Polo

An Italian merchant who visited China uring the Yuan dynasty. Left a vivid account of China and sparked European interest to the wealth that China had.

Zheng He

An oversea venture who commanded 7 ecpeditions to promote trade and collect tribute.

Yamato clan

a clan (or uji) of people in Japan ruled by Prince Shotoku.

Shinto

The worship of the forces of nature spirits (kami) - "the way of the gods"

Shotoku

Prince of the Yamato Clan. Prefered learning from China than Korea.

Sei Shonagon

Waka poet/diarist.

Murasaki Shikibu

A Japanese novelist, poet, maid.

Selective Borrowing=

When a culture takes some parts of a culture and disregards the others:Japan used some of China's cultural ways, and discarded others.

Kana=

phonetic symbols representing syllables (basically a revised version of the Chinese system of writing, added with kana)

Minamoto Yoritomo

appointed shogun in 1192, who set up the Kamakura shogunate—three military dynasties that ruled Japan for about 700 years.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

a daimyo who defeated rivals to be master of Japan. Three years later he became a shogun.

Shogun=

preme military commander.

Daimyo=

great warrior lords.

Samurai=

lesser warriors. "those who serve".

Bushido=

a code of laws for warriors.

Haiku=

a miniature poem with 3 lines and 17 syllables.

Francis Xavier

a Spanish priest/Jesuit/missionary who thought that the Japanese were curious and who was interested in Christianity.

Hermit kingdom

When the Japanese invaded, and the Manchus conquered Korea, Korea became a tributary state that had to acknowledge China's supremacy: so later Koreans chose isolation, and the west of it was called Hermit Kingdom.

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