from the Arabic "khalifah" (one who represents or acts on behalf of another). This was the Prophet's successor as the head of the Muslim community; the position became institutionalized in the form of the caliphate, which lasted from 632 to 1924
"remembering" God's name; chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while devotees dance in a circle
'protected people': non-muslim religious minorities (specifically Jews and Christians, as 'People of the Book') accorded tolerated status in Islamic society
a Sufi ascetic, from the Arabic word for 'poor'; the corresponding Persian word is 'darkish'
the short opening 'surah' of the Qur'an, recited at least 17 times every day
a ruling issued by a traditional religion-legal authority
Jurisprudence, or the theoretical principles underpinning the specific regulations contained in the 'shari'ah'
the body of texts reporting Muhammad's words and example, taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a form of an individual unit of literature
the annual pilgrimage to Mecca
ritually acceptable; most often used in the context of the slaughter of animals for meat; also refers generally to Muslim dietary regulations
'pious ones'; a group of pre-Islamic Arabs who shared the ethical monotheism of Jews and Christians
'forbidden', used especially in reference to actions; similar in its connotations to 'taboo'
a woman's veil or head covering
the prophet's migration from Mecca to establish a community in Medina in 622 CE. in dates, the abbreviation AH stands for 'year of the hijrah' (the starting point of the Islamic dating systems)
the holiday celebrating the end of the ramadan fast; the festival traditionally begins following the sighting of the new moon
the consensus of religion-legal scholars; one of the two secondary principles used in jurisprudence; some legal schools give it more weight than others
personal reasoning applied to the development of legal opinions
Shi'is who recognize 12 imams as legitimate heirs to the Prohpet's authority; the last, in occupation since 874, is expected to return some day as the Mahdi
Shi'is who recognize only 7 imams; named after the last of them, Isma'il , whose lineage continues to the present in the Agha Khan
the pedigree or chain of transmission of a hadith, with which the individual unit begins
struggle in defense of the faith; some jihads are military, waged in response to threats to the community's security or welfare; others are spiritual, waged to improve moral conduct in society
spirits or demons (the singular is jinni)
rejecting belief; implies lack of gratitude for God's grace
the shi'i 12 Imam, understood in his role as the 'rightly guided one' who will emerge from hiding at some unspecified future date to restore righteousness and order to the world
the prophet's miraculous journey to heaven
the person who calls people to prayer
the direction of prayer, marked in mosques by a niche inside the wall nearest Mecca
the month throughout which Muslims fast during daylight hours
alms given voluntarily, in addition to the required zakat
the prescribed daily prayers, said 5 times during the day
the Muslim profession of faith in God as the only god, and in Muhammad as God's prophet
the specific regulations of Islamic law (jurisprudence, or theoretical discussion of the law, is fiqh)
the arabic term for a senior master, especially in the context of Sufism
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority through imams in the lineage of 'Ali; the smaller of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for about one-sixth of all Muslims today
the 'life-example' of Muhammad's words and deeds, based mainly on the Hadith literature, the primary source of guidance for Muslims
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority through the caliphate, which lasted until the 20th century; the larger of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for about five-sixths of all Muslims today
A chapter of the Qur'an; there are 114 in all, arranged mainly in decreasing order of length except for the first (the Fatihah)
commentary on the Qur'an
following the ijtihad or legal opinion of particular jurist
the muslim community
the prescribed welfare tax, 2.5 percent of each Muslim's accumulated wealth, collected by central treasuries in earlier times but now donated to charities independently of state governments, see also sadaqah
What is the most important place in Islam?
Mecca--> Medina--> Jerusalem
What is the Hadith?
Sayings by and about Muhammad
Where is the highest Muslim population?
What does Islam mean in Arabic? Explain
it means 'submission' and signifies the commitment of its adherents to live in total submission to God--> a person who professes Islam is called a Muslim
When was the Prophet Muhammad born?
When did Muhammad get the call to become a prophet and who said it?
610: in a cave on Mount Hira, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "RECITE!"
When does the Islamic calendar begin?
Where did Muhammad establish the first Islamic commonwealth?
Where is the ascension into heaven of Muhammad?
the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (same place as ancient Israel's Temple and where Abraham nearly sacrificed Isaac)
When was the Mi'raj and what is it?
a night journey of Muhammad in 621 CE
When does Muhammad go back to Mecca?
What is the arabic word from Prophet? For Messanger?
nabi--> rasul: a prophet is one who conveys a message from God to a specific people at a specific time. a messenger is also a prophet sent by God at a specific community, but the message he delivers is a universally binding sacred law (shari'ah)
What did the minority of muslims believe after Muhammad died and what was their name?
The Shi'ah--> they believed that Muhammad had appointed his daughter Fatima's husband Ali to succeed him, and that leadership continued through this line
When did Muhammad die?
Does Islam have a priesthood?
No: every person is responsible for his/her own morality as well as the morality of the entire Muslim ummah
In Shari'ah law, action is classified in 5 categories, what are the main two?
Halal (obligatory acts) and Haram (forbidden acts)
Who was Ibn Sina (Avicenna)?
he was a philosopher that denied resurrection of the body and eternal punishment in Hell
Who was Al-Ghazali?
he was a philosopher that used philosophy to attack philosophic knowledge and found 'occasionalism' (God causes everything at every instant)
Who was Ibn Rushd (Averroes)?
a philosopher that believed philosophy was above religion but that both led to truth
When and where was the Arab Muslim Empire established?
711 on the Iberian Peninsula
What happened in 1299?
the Osman I took over the caliphate from the Abbasids, establishing a dynasty (the 'ottomans') that was to endure until 1924
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
1. To bear witness that there is no god except God and that Muhammad is the Messanger of God
2. To establish regular worship or prayer (5x a day)
3. To pay the zakat alms (2.5% of total wealth)
4. To observe the fast of Ramadan
5. To perform the hajj
What are the basic moral restrictions of Islam?
1. No gambling/theft
2. no charging interest: on other or self (no credit cards)
3. no alcohol/drugs
4. some dietary prohibitions (no pork)
5. no sexual promiscuity
What are the features of every Mosque in Islam?
1. a fountain for ritual washing of hands, face, and feet upon entering
2. a large area for kneeling and prostration in prayer
3. a pulpit from which the leader of Friday noon worship delivers a prayer and sermon (no "sabbath" in Islam)
4. An imageless niche in the middle of the wall closest to Mecca, indication of the qiblah (direction of prayer)
Who is Muhammad Iqbal?
the greatest Muslim thinker of modern India; he was a poet and philosopher; wanted to integrate muslim spirituality with western ways of thinking
True or False: the president of Iran is like the president of the US
FALSE: he is not nearly as militant as our president. the real power comes from religious authorities
When was the Islamic Revolution?
When did the Islamic presence in Western Europe begin? And with what rule?
711 with Umayyad rule in southern Spain
True or false: islam is the fastest growing religion in North America
Is polygyny (simultaneous marriage to more than one wife) allowed in Islam
Yes, but it limits the number of wives to four and demands strict justice and equality in a man's material and emotional support for all of his wives