Elements heavier than iron were formed where?
a.) in a supernova
b.) by immense pressures in the center of the Earth
c.) in the Sun
d.) in the Big Bang
In a supernova
What layers within the Earth define strength or mechanical boundaries?
a.) the lithosphere and asthenosphere
b.) the crust and mantle
c.) the continental crust and oceanic crust
d.) the mantle and the inner core
The lithosphere and asthenosphere
If we measured the light from galaxies around us and found them to be blue-shifted, what would this mean about the universe?
a.) the universe is not moving
b.) the universe is contracting
c.) the universe is expanding
d.) this has nothing to do with the relative motion of objects in the universe
The universe is contracting
Which is the lightest layer of the Earth?
a.) The upper mantle
b.) The Nerf layer
c.) The continental crust
d.) The oceanic crust
The continental layer
What is the dominant gas in the atmosphere?
b.) carbon dioxide
Which of the following is not a mineral?
a.) liquid water
b.) crystals grown in a lab
c.) volcanic glass
e.) all of the above
All of the above
Which of the following properties of a magma increases in the direction of the arrows in the diagram?
Felsic -> Intermediate -> Mafic
a.) resistance to weathering
b.) silica content
c.) initial melting temperature
d.) complexity of silicon oxygen tetrahedral structure
Initial melting temp
Which has less susceptibility to weathering, and a lower melting point?
a.) olivine as compared to quartz
b.) quartz as compared to olivine
c.) mica as compared to amphibole
d.) olivine as compared to amphibole
e.) feldspar as compared to quartz
Quartz as compared to olivine
A scientific theory is...
a.) a hunch about how thinks work
b.) a hypothesis
c.) an idea repeatedly tested and supported by an abundance of evidence
d.) the data gathering stage of the scientific method
An idea repeatedly tested and supported by an abundance of evidence
Which is false.
a.) it gets hotter as one goes deeper into the Earth
b.) the mantle is mostly solid
c.) the mantle is mostly liquid
d.) the outer core is liquid
e.) mantle rock moves even though it is mostly solid
The mantle is mostly liquid
In our current understanding of the Big Bang, ___________.
a.) Earth is much older than the rest of the universe
b.) Dr. Schutt is much older than the Earth
c.) Earth and the Universe formed at the same time
d.) the Universe is considerably older than Earth
e.) there is no way of knowing how old the Universe might be
The Universe is considerably older than Earth
The metal alloy that makes up the core of Earth is _____, as compared to the rocky mantle.
a.) less dense
c.) very similar in chemistry and density
d.) distinct in chemistry but very similar density
What observation is the major supporting evidence for the Big Bang theory of the Universe?
a.) Presence of 92 chemical elements in the solar system
b.) Spiral shape of galaxies
c.) Presence of Moon
d.) Light from distant galaxies has longer wavelengths
Light from distant galaxies
When did the Earth form?
a.) About 600 Ma
b.) 4.6 Ma
c.) 13.6 Ga
d.) 4.6 Ga
What layer of the Earth is liquid?
a.) The outer core
b.) The inner core
c.) The lithosphere
d.) The mantle
Where is the Earth hottest?
a.) In a volcano
b.) At the surface
c.) At the center
d.) In the mantle
Gabbro is a rock with coarse grains. It is most similar in composition to the rock _______.
Beach sand is dominantly _____, because ________.
a.) olivine; it doesn't dissolve in water
b.) granite; of nearby volcanoes
c.) feldspar; it doesn't melt easily
d.) quartz; it is relatively resistant to weathering
quartz; resistant to weathering
Which of the following processes could not produce magma in the Earth?
a.) addition of pressure
b.) addition of water to mantle rocks
c.) uprise of mantle rocks as the mantle convects
d.) addition of heat from a hot magma
Addition of pressure
Which is lower in temperature?
a.)wet solidus of basalt
b.) dry solidus of basalt
c.) liquidus of basalt
wet solidus of basalt
Which is a fine-grained felsic rock?
A melt cannot be more mafic than it's source. This means:
a.) melting granite can produce a basaltic melt
b.) melting granite can produce an andesite melt
c.) melting peridotite can produce a basaltic melt
d.) melting diorite can produce a komatic melt
melting peridotite can produce a basaltic melt
At places liek Long Valley or Yellowstone, there is a large feature that has formed as the land has collapsed into the magma chamber below. What is this?
a.) a crater
c.) a caldera
Which of the following is not a manifestation of a physical weathering process?
a.) roots pry a crack open
b.) rock breaks apart by the formation of joints
c.) water reacts with minerals and breaks molecules apart
d.) salt crystals grow between grains and push the grains apart
water reacts with minerals and breaks molecules apart
Which of the following is not a manifestation of chemical weathering?
a.) The dissolving of calcite in water to produce Ca2 and CO3 in solution.
b.) Bonding of oxygen to iron ions to produce oxide minerals
c.) Growth of ice crystals in cracks to wedge the cracks open
d.) Absorption of water molecules into the crystal structure of minerals
Growth of ice crystals in cracks
On Earth, loose sediment which covers bedrock and has been chemically altered by reactions with rainwater and the addition of organic matter by the biosphere is termed:
True or False.
Large-scale volcanic eruptions can cause a drop in global temps.
The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed:
d.) all of the above
The black areas of the moon, the mare, are:
b.) olivine sand
Nonviolent eruptions characterized by extensive flows of basaltic lave are termed:
The eastern US is a...
a.) transform boundary
b.) subduction zone
c.) passive margin
d.) subject to M9 earthquakes
Which is true about the evolution of life on Earth?
a.) mammals came before insects
b.) land animals evolved before sea creautres
c.) dinosaurs and humans lived happily side by side
d.) the oxygen content in the atmosphere increased dramatically about 2-3 Ga, due to photosynthesis by cyanobacteria
oxygen content rose
When did the Earth become internally differentiated?
The Earth's plates are...
a.) discrete pieces of lithosphere at the surface of the solid Earth that move with respect to one another
b.) discrete layers of lithosphere that are vertically stacked one atop the other
c.) composed only of continental rocks that plow through the weaker oceanic rocks
d.) made up of hotspots
discrete pieces of lithosphere at the surface of the solid Earth that move with respect to one another
Which of the following is correct about metamorphic rocks?
a.) igneous rock may not be converted to metamorphic rocks in the rock cycle
b.) metamorphic rocks can be distinguished by texture and mineralogy
c.) metamorphic rocks are only produced from sedimentary rocks
d.) weathering, erosion, and lithification lead to metamorphic rocks
e.) metamorphic rocks are only produces below about 200 degrees
metamorphic rocks can be distinguished by texture and mineralogy
Geographically, a shield is:
a.) a low lying region where Precambrian rocks crop out
b.) a mountainous region at a convergent plate boundary
c.) a region of compressed rock located behind a volcanic arc at a convergent continental margin
d.) a passive margin
low lying region where Precambrian rocks crop out
Why are banded-iron formations significant in Earths history?
a.) they indicate the transition from soft shelled to hard shelled animals
b.) formed during snowball earth
c.) indicate the increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
d.) they are due to the differentiation of the Earth's core
indicate the increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
The 1.7 Ga metamorphic rocks found throughout the northern Colorado Rockies indicate:
a.) there was a mountain range here 1.7 Ga
b.) lots of hot magma came to the surface, baking the rocks
c.) friction from the creation of the rockies created these rocks
d.) Colorado is a cratoon formed in the Archean
mountain range 1.7 Ga
The order if the major Eras in geologic time, from oldest to youngest is:
a.) precambrian, mesozoic, cenozoic, paleozoic
b.) precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic
c.) paleozoic, precambrian, mesozoic, cenozoic
d.) cenozoic, mesozoic, paleozoic, precambrian
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Evidence for which event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary includes: an iridium-rich layer of clay, glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains?
a.) the impact of a bolide
b.) long trend of global cooling
c.) worldwide explosive volcanism
impact of a bolide
Put these rocks in order from coldest to hottest at the time of formation.
a.) metamorphic, igneous, sedimentary
b.) sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic
c.) igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
d.) sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous
sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous
What kind of rick is sandstone?
a.) metamorphic; it's been subjected to high temp and pressure to fuse the sand grains together
b.) igneous; sand grains crystallized out of a magma
c.) sedimentary; sand grains have been cemented together during lithification
d.) biochemical rock; made from a muddy shallow marine bay
e.) evaporate; has precipitated out of a solution as an ocean or lake dried up
sedimentary; sand grains cemented together during lithification
Which of these is not an agent of metamorphism?
c.) differential stress
e.) hydrothermal fluids
Which of these locations overlie a hot spot?
d.) All of the above
all of the above
Cratons, the relatively undeformed heart of continents grew during which geologic eon?
Which is true about the sequence of events on Earth?
a.) Insects came before reptiles, which came before humans
b.) Dinosaurs went extinct because they watched to much TV
c.) Humans did not co-exist with woolly mammoths
d.) The oceans were created during the Proterozoic Eon
e.) North America has been pretty much the same since the Archean
Insects came before reptiles, which came before humans
There is a long mountain chain that trends roughly north and south along the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. At this mounain chain, new pillow basalts are constantly being formed. What is this?
a.) passive margin
b.) active margin
c.) lost continent of Atlantis
d.) convergent boundary
e.) divergent boundary
Why are there no volcanoes in the Himalayas, which are produced at a continent-continent convergent boundary?
a.) the mountains are too high for magma to make it through them
b.) no water is being brought down into the mantle by subduction, and thus no melting is occurring in the mantle here
c.) volcanoes are only produced by hot spots
d.) there is not enough friction here to produce magma
No water is being brought down into the mantle by subduction, and thus no melting is occuring in the mantle here
A mineral within a metamorphic rock that can be used to provide a narrow constraint on the temp and pressure of formation of the rock is termed a(n):
b.) index mineral
c.) mafic mineral
d.) halide mineral
e.) a googlemineral
A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress, causing clay minerals to realign and produce slate. This is an example of:
Marble and quartzite are nonfoliated rocks because:
a.) they are never found beneath fault zones or collisional mountian ranges
b.) both are dominated by minerals that produce equant grains
c.) both are dominated by minerals with crystalline structures that cannot be dissolved
d.) foliation only occurs in mountain-building events, and marble and quartzite are formed only through contact metamorphism
Both are dominated by minerals that produce equant grains
Which of these is a typical feature of an oceanic hotspot?
a.) magnitude 9 earthquakes
b.) melting due to water brought down by subduction
c.) felsic magmatism
d.) deep earthquakes
e.) long chains of volcanic islands/quyots
long chains of volcanic islands
What kind of lavas would you expect to find at a mid ocean ridge?
c.) explosive eruptions
Compared to low grade metamorphic rocks, high grade rocks:
a.) always contain more quartz and felspar
b.)are produces closer to the surface, high in the stratigraphic column
c.) are more valuble
d.) are produced at greater temp and pressure
e.) are produced at cooler temp, but greater pressures
are produced at greater temp and pressure
Where is the lithosphere thinnest?
a.) convergent boundaries
b.) oceanic divergent boundaries
c.) under mountain ranges
d.) at the deepest places in the oceans
oceanic divergent boundaries
Of the places within and neat the continental US, the Pacific Northwest has the potential for the largest earthquakes. Why is this?
a.) there is a subduction zone here
b.) people here commit more evil acts
c.) there's lots of rain here
d.) there is a transform boundary that runs through Oregon and Washington
e.) the coast region is a divergent boundary, and the earthquakes are caused by cracking rocks
There is a subduction zone here
What type of rock is associated with karst topography?
True or False.
Pumping groundwater can reverse the regional groundwater flow direction.
What caused Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington?
a.) ice scoured out of the Earth here
b.) years of drought
c.) poor and irresponsible land use
d.) a massive flood caused by a lake that was previously dammed by ice
e.) politicians in Washington D.C.
A massive flood
As earthquake magnitude goes up by 1, how much does S-wave amplitude increase at a given seismometer?
d.) S-Wave amplitude is constant for all magnitude earthquakes
The Earth averages about 134 magnitude 6.0-6.9 earthquakes a year; about how many magnitude 5.0-5.9 earthquakes do you expect on an average year?
Which is the first arriving earthquake wave?
a.) S wave
b.) P wave
c.) Love wave
d.) Rayleigh Wave
e.) the Shaky Wave
The Rocky Mountains were produced by _____ during the Laramide Orogeny.
a.) continent-continent collision with the Pacific Plate
b.) steep-angle subduction and mountain building near the coast
c.) flat-angle subduction and mountain building well inland from the coast
d.) strike-slip faulting along the San Andreas Fault
e.) continental drifting forming normal fault block mountains
The Pierre Shale, below us right now, is sediment from:
a.) a shallow inland sea, and was deposited about 115 Ma. It contains fish fossils.
b.) the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, deposited about 300 Ma. It forms Red Rocks.
c.) the Alleghanian Rocky Mountains, deposited about 300 Ma. It contains coal.
d.) the Dakota Hogback; it was deposited after the Ice Age.
e.) Kansas, where an ancient mountain range once existed.
a shallow inland sea
In an area of the river where flow velocity decreases...
a.) discharge increases
b.) you are near the thalweg
c.) competence is reduced and sediment drops out
d.) the gradient is likely increasing
Competence is reduced and sediment drops out
The lowest elevation to which a stream can downcut is the...
a.) base level
c.) stream gradient
The deepest part of the channel, where stream flows fastest, is the:
a.) base level
c.) stream gradient
The Morrison formation:
a.) contains Jim Morrison's dead body
b.) formed about 150 Ma, and contains many dinosaur fossils
c.) is a sedimentary record of the Ancestral Rockies
d.) is a marine sediment from 115 Ma
form about 150 M and contains dinosaur fossils
The Fountain Formation:
a.) has many geysers
b.) is the first coherent rock layer under our classroom
c.) was created about 850 Ma during rifting
d.) is formed by weathered sediments from the Laramide orogeny
e.) consists of red sandstone deposits that were weathered off the Ancestral Rockies
consists of red sandstone deposits
Which are in order from oldest to youngest?
a.) Basin and Range extension, Sevier Orogeny, Ancestral Rockies, Laramide Orogeny
b.) Ancestral Rockies, Sevier Orogeny, Ancestral Rockies, Basin and Range extension
c.) Sevier Orogeny, Basin and Range extension, Ancestral Rockies, Laramide Orogeny
d.) Sevier Orogeny, Laramide Orogeny, Ancestral Rockies, Basin and Range extenion
Ancestral Rockies, Sevier Orogeny, Laramide Orogeny, Basin and Range extension
Which is older of the following choices.
a.) The San Andreas Fault
b.) Cascade volcanoes
c.) The Laramide Orogeny
d.) the granite on Longs Peak
Granite on Longs Peak
The energy release of all earthquakes over the last 100 years indicates that:
a.) over 50% of all energy released due to small earthquakes (M<6)
b.) Over 50% of all energy is released due to 3 main ones (Sumatra, Alaska, Chile)
c.) Over 50% of all energy released is due to medium sized earthquakes, like the 1906 San Francisco quake
d.) There is not any pattern between energy release and the number of earthquakes of a particular magnitude
3 main ones
In terms of earthquake hazard, where is it better to build a house?
a.) on fill dirt, since it dampens out earthquake vibrations
b.) on bedrock, since shaking from an earthquake has lower amplitude on this
Which is false.
A meandering river is:
b.) generally found where stream gradients are large
c.) often found near deltas
d.) usually associated with alluvial, rather than bedrock, settings
Generally found where stream gradients are large
How does urbanization affect flooding?
a.) it decreases the size of floods
b.) increases size and frequency
c.) decreases the size but increases the frequency
increases size and frequency
a.) consist of a series of intertwined channels that are overloaded with sediment
b.) have flowing water either episodically or during a portion of the year
c.) have a channel that is highly sinuous
d.) are those that divert flow from streams they have intersected through stream erosion
have flowing water either episodically or during a portion of the year
If a river gains water from the water table, what can be inferred?
a.) the river bed is below the regional water table
b.) the river bed is above the regional water table
c.) the river is ephemeral
the river bed is below the regional water table
Which of these has higher porosity?
a.) a jar of marbles
b.) a jar of marbles and sand
c.) a jar of silt that is tightly packed
a jar of marbles
If an igneous rock is unfractured, it serves as a _____ in a local hydrogeology.
c.) artesian well
d.) perched aquifer
Where is groundwater flowing fastest?
a.) where the water table has the steepest gradient
b.) where the water table has the flattest gradient
c.) where rainfall is the highest
d.) where permeability is lowest
e.) at drainage divides
where the water table has the steepest gradient
Does groundwater ever flow upwards?
b.) yes, in an area of recharge
c.) yes, in an area of discharge
d.) yes, typically under the highest places in the landscape
yes, in an area of discharge
In a hilly landscape, where would you expect hydraulic head to be highest?
a.) in the valleys
b.) at the hill crests
c.) right between the hills and in the landscape
at the hill crests