Nutrition Chapter 12

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Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies flashcards

The foodborne infection that is most commonly a result of eating contaminated eggs or poultry is:

Salmonellosis

To reduce your intake of pesticide residues you would:;

Trim fat from meat & discard the outer layers of cabbage; a and b

Characteristics of the artificial fat olestra include:

it passes through the digestive tract unabsorbed; it is fortified with vitamin E; a and b

Numerous health organizations concluded that irradiation of food is safe and can improve food safety in the United States and the world.

True

What can be said about fresh produce and foodborne illness?

produce grown close to the ground may be irrigated with contaminated water

Those individuals purchasing organic foods are urged to:

wash raw produce vigorously, cook the food properly; b and c

A food manufacturer is packaging a new food product that is susceptible to mold and bacterial growth. The food additive he most likely would use to protect the food is:

acetic acid

Results of commercial drying of foods include:

it eliminates microbial spoilage, it eliminates the water in foods; a and b

The FDA has identified genetic modification of foods as the area of least concern in our food supply.

True

One difference between toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum in foods is that:

Staph toxins are heat stable and survive cooking.

What is a beneficial reason for purchasing organic fresh fruits and vegetables rather than conventionally grown foods?

growing methods used down harm the environment

A person eating in an Asian restaurant has just finished a meal and immediately experiences the symptoms of burning and flushing of the skin and a headache. What ingredient added to the foods may have brought about this reaction?

monosodium glutamate

What of the following artificial sweeteners is made from sucrose?

sucralose

The potato salad you brought to the picnic potluck in the park has been sitting out for 4 hours during the meal on a hot sunny day. What should you do with the leftover servings once the meal is finished?

throw away the leftovers because they have been at an unsafe temperature too long

Which of the following should not be used to thaw frozen meats?

defrosting at room temperature, defrosting in a bath of warm water; b and c

The extruding process is based on:

grinding, temperature; b and c

Supporters of genetic engineering for foods state the following as a benefit:

plants and animals can be engineered to contain higher levels of certain vitamins and minerals, plants can be engineered to provide vaccines and immunizations against disease; a and c

To protect the vitamin content of fruits and vegetables, you would:

select vine-ripened ones, chill immediately after picking; b and c

You are selecting salad ingredients for your dinner in a grocery store and see puffy sealed plastic bags containing mixed cut salad vegetables. Should you select this product?

yes, because modified atmosphere packaging has been used

One purpose of genetic engineering is to:

make crops resistant to diseases

The large ears of sweet corn available today are the result of:

selective breeding

Which of the following is(are) the best known and most widely used antimicrobial agents?

salt, sugar; a and c

For which of the following additives are only 10 of the original list of 80 still approved for use?

artificial colors

Which of the following groups should avoid all uncooked or undercooked eggs?

the elderly, those who suffer immune dysfunction; a and c

If you are preparing a potato for dinner and see a player of green just under the skin, you should:

peel off the green layer and cook the potato

The difference between foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication is that:

foodborne intoxication results from chemicals produced by microbes

Which of the following is the most susceptible to bacterial contamination?

ground meat

To minimize the loss of water-soluble vitamins from vegetables you would:

microwave them, steam them over water: a and c

The agency charged withe responsibility of deciding what additives shall be in foods is the:

Food and Drug Administration

To be sure that your home-canned food does not contain the botulinum toxin you would:

follow proper canning techniques, boil the canned food for 10 minutes; a and b

To avoid cross-contamination of foods:

it is good to practice to keep a separate cutting board just for raw meats.

What irradiation is used to protect foods from contamination, what happens to the quality of those foods?

vitamin loss is minimal and comparable to that of other food processing methods

Which of the following is not used as an antioxidant in foods?

vitamin A

Which of the following causes cancer in animals?

nitrosamines

Losses of which of the following vitamins are least likely during the canning process?

vitamin A

Current evidence indicates that moderate intakes of artificial sweeteners pose no health risks.

True

To control the safety of additives in foods that FDA has rules manufacturers most follow, which include:

submitting proof that a new additive is safe after numerous tests

Monosodium glutamate:

is used widely in Asian restaurants, is an example of a flavor enhancer; a and b

Water-soluble vitamins and minerals are affected by canning.

True

Which of the following terms on a food label does not have a specific meaning defined by labeling regulations?

free-range

The proper way to wash hands when handling foods is to:

wash hands with soap and warm water for 15 seconds

Opponents of genetic engineering make the following argument:

consumers cannot remove GE pesticides that form within the tissue of the plant

If pesticides have been used on fresh fruits and vegetables, what do you know about the safety of those foods?

most pesticides can be removed by thoroughly washing the foods

Organic foods reduce harm to the environment because they are produced by sustainable agriculture methods such as:

raising animals in natural surroundings with access to the outdoors

All varieties of sushi are made from raw fish.

False

When irradiation is used to protect foods from contamination, what happens to the quality of those foods?

vitamin loss is mineral and comparable to that of other food processing methods

Characteristics of foods that have undergone extrusion include:

they usually have had colors added to them, they have undergone considerable nutrient losses; a and c

Several hours after eating a chilled three-bean salad containing home-canned green beans, family members have difficulty breathing and swallowing, double vision, and muscle weakness. What should they do?

go to the hospital immediately because they have botulism

BHT protects fruits and vegetables from browning caused by exposure to oxygen.

True

To avoid poisoning by toxins you would

consume a variety of foods, eat all foods in moderation; a and c

Regulations for the production of certified organic foods specify that:

plant foods must be produced without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, producers must submit to USDA inspections; a and c

Frozen foods' nutrient content is similar to that of:

fresh foods

Which of the following is (are) not required to bear a label stating that they have been irradiated?

spices mixed with processed foods

When comparisons are made between organic, conventional, and genetic engineering methods of growing foods, one of the main differences is that:

genetic engineering can be used to increase nutrient content

To prevent foodborne illness you would:

use a meat thermometer to roast a whole chicken, cook hamburgers to well-done, a and b

The word organic on the label is no guarantee that a food is:

completely pesticide-free

Billy loves to eat raw seafood and does so frequently. As a result, Billy runs the risk of suffering from:

hepatitis, worms; a and c

There has been concern for many years about the safety of artificial sweeteners and their use in the diet. How would you respond to someone who asks about this?

current evidence shows that moderate intakes of artificial sweeteners pose no health risks in adults

The use of selective breeding in human agriculture:

can involve analysis of DNA from successful seedlings

To prevent serious illness from consuming oysters you would:

eat them fully cooked and not raw

Which of the following is (are) not intentionally used in or on foods?

contaminants

Your family has the tradition of leaving the Thanksgiving turkey on the dinner table for everyone to snack on as they please in the evening after the big mid-day meal has been finished. This year several family members wake up the next day with vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Which foodborne contaminant was the most likely culprit?

Salmonella bacteria

Food additives used in the U.S. are strictly controlled and pose little cause for concern.

True

Nitrites are commonly found in:

hot dogs, ham; a and b

Which of the following would be least likely to lose any vitamin C during the freezing process?

strawberries

Which of the following synthetic sweeteners should not be given to individuals with phenylketonuria?

aspartame

How does modified atmosphere packaging protect foods?

it excludes oxygen needed by many bacteria

Which of the following statements about the "Core Four" practices for sanitation is accurate?

foods should be kept out of the food danger zone of 40°-140°F

Only _____ synthetic color additives are still approved by the FDA for use in foods.

10

Which of the following hazards in our food supply is of most concern according to the Food and Drug Administration?

microbial foodborne illness

The best way to keep chilled foods safe is to:

refrigerate them immediately after getting home from the grocery store

Nitrites are added to foods to:

a and b inhibit rancidity and preserve their color

To control the safety of additives in foods the FDA has rules manufacturers must follow, which include:

submitting proof that a new additive is safe after numerous tests

Joe is planning a trip to Mexico and wants to practice food safety while traveling. You would tell Joe to:

avoid salads

The agency charged with the responsibility of deciding what additives shall be in foods is the:

Food and Drug Administration

Properly irradiated food does not become radioactive.

True

After cooking, foods should be held at _____° F or higher until served.

140

Which of the following is(are) not intentionally used in or on foods?

contaminants

Which of the following would lose the most thiamin?

canned foods

Which of the following statements is true concerning the GRAS list?

a and b
It includes a list of additives believed to be safe and It stands for "generally recognized as safe."

Sulfite additives added during the drying of fruits results in:

a and c
prevention of browning and destruction of thiamin.

Which of the following foods would you not choose for a picnic?

mixed salad of chopped ingredients

A person choosing a food that contains sulfites should not count on that food to provide a share of the daily need for:

thiamin.

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