the specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes.
the study of the parts and the functions of neurons.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
rootlike parts of the cell that stretch out from the cell body.
contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibres.
a fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds neural impulses.
the branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters.
chemicals contained in terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate.
the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
neurons that relay info from the sense organs to the brain.
neurons that carry messages from the brain to the muscles, organs, and glands.
neurons that relay messages from sensory neurons to motor neurons in complex pathways.
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
a neuron's reaction of either firing or not firing.
neurotransmitters which excite the next cell into firing.
neurotransmitters which inhibit the next cell from firing.
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction. Linked to Alzheimer's disease.
a neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Linked to schizophrenia and Parkinson's.
neurotransmitters that influence pain control. Involved in addictions.
a neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. Linked to depression.
a neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal. Can lead to depressed moods.
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory. Linked to migraines and seizures.
Central Nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous system
consists of all other nerves inside the body outside of the CNS.
Somatic Nervous System
division of the PNS that controls our voluntary muscle movements.
Autonomic Nervous System
division of the PNS that controls the automatic functions of our body.
Sympathetic Nervous System
divison of the ANS that mobilizes our body to respond to stress.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
division of the ANS that's responsible for slowing down our body after a stress response.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus.
the removal or destruction of part of the brain.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface.
a sophisticated X-ray which uses several cameras that rotate around the brain and combine all the pictures into a detailed three-dimensional picture of the brain's structure.
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue, allowing us to see structures within the brain.
a visual display of brain activity that detects what parts of the brain are most active during certain tasks.
a technique for revealing bloodflow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
consists of structures in the top part of the spinal cord.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.
the base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing.
connect the hindbrain with the midbrain and forebrain. Are also involved in facial expressions.
attached to the rear of the brainstem, it's functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal, and keeping the brain awake and alert.
this area of the brain controls simple movements with sensory information.
this area of the brain is responsible for what we think of as thought and reasoning.
the brain's sensory switchboard. Responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming up into the spinal cord and sending them to the appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain.
controls several metabolic functions, including body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst, and the endocrine system.
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions such as fear and aggression.
part of the brain vital to our memory system.
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
hemisphere of the brain that gets sensory messages and controls the motor function of the right half of the body.
hemisphere of the brain that gets sensory messages and controls the motor functions of the left half of the body.
the nerve bundle that connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
any area of the cerebral cortex that is not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
area in the frontal lobe responsible for controlling the muscles involved in producing speech.
Thin vertical strip at the back of the frontal lobe that sends signals to our muscles, controlling our voluntary movements.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear, receives sensory input for touch and body position.
thin vertical strip in the parietal lobe that receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of our body.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head, includes the visual areas.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears, includes the auditory areas.
area in the temporal lobes that interprets both written and spoken speech.
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
The Endocrine system
a system of glands that secrete hormones that affect many different biological processes in our bodies.
The "master gland" of the endocrine system; it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands.
gland that affects metabolism.
gland that helps regulate levels of calcium in the blood.
the glands which produce adrenaline, preparing the body for fight or flight.
gland which regulates the level of sugar within the blood.
glands which secrete female sex hormones (estrogen).
glands which secrete male sex hormones (testosterone).
the genetic material that makes up chromosomes.
an organism's genetic makeup.
an organism's physical characteristics.
a segment of a chromosome that encodes the directions from the inherited physical and mental characteristics of an organism.
threadlike structures consisting mostly of DNA, upon which the genes are organized.
caused when a baby is born with only one X chromosome in the spot usually occupied by the 23rd pair.
caused when a baby is born with an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY pattern.
caused when a baby is born with an extra chromosome on the 21st pair.