texes EC-6: competency 001 (oral language)

43 terms by cking97 

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imitation

learning strategy that young children use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, etc

phonology

study of the sound system of a language

phonemes

basic units of sound

morphology

set of rules for combining sounds into meaningful units

syntax

the structure of a phrase or sentence; entails the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language

semantics

the meanings of words and phrases

pragmatics

consists of rules for effective communication in different contexts; describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication.

connotation

the implied meaning of words and ideas

denotation

the literal meaning of words and ideas

communication disorders

Voice Disorders, Fluency Disorders, Articulation Problems, Language Processing Disorders

phonation

voice disorder; describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration. ex: hoarseness or extreme breathlessness

resonance

voice disorder; abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. ex: hyper-nasal sounds.

stuttering

fluency disorder; false starts or inability to produce intended sounds

cluttering

fluency disorder; occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.

lisping

articulation problem; when children produce the /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth

language processing disorders

generally caused by brain-based disturbance called aphasia

receptive aphasia

creates problems with listening comprehension and retrieval of words from memory.
ex: repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.

expressive aphasia

damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluency.
ex: speech produce is very slow. the sentences produced are generally very short and contain only necessary features to convey message.

global aphasia

brain bases disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of language.
ex: produce minimal speech and comprehension is very limited.

language processing disorders

receptive, expressive, and global aphasia.

activities to promotes oral communication

dramatic play, language play, show and tell, puppet show, pair interview , presenting, reading to students, songs, rhymes, games, thinking out loud.

formal assessments of oral language development

peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT) and test of oral language development (TOLD)

receptive language

ability to understand a message
ex: sensitivity to phonemic distinctions in words, comprehension of word meanings, and awareness of pragmatic conventions.

expressive language

the ability to express oneself in language--to produce words, to choose correct vocabulary and grammar, and to follow pragmatic conventions.

scaffolding

refers to the adults help children learn complex skills such as language; providing a structure in which the children can develop his/her language skills.

english language learner

children whose native language is not english and whose oral language skills are less advanced than their classmates.

bilingual education

academic content is provided in the student's native language at the same time that English language instruction is given

english-as-a-second-language (ESL)

placed in an English class with other English learners who speak a variety of different languages

language experience approach (LEA)

instructional method that integrates oral and written language skills.
ex: often focuses on shared experiences, such as a field trip or special event.

textless books/wordless books

help students connect spoken and printed language
consist of sequences of pictures but no print.

Asking young children to read textless books allows them to practice...what?

vocabulary and to apply merging appreciation of narrative.

dialogic reading

conversations between a teacher a teacher and students about a story that has just been read.

word walls

lists of words that students are currently learning in places that the entire class can see

help students connect spoken and printed language by?

textless books, dialogic reading, and word walls.

critical listening

understand and evaluate he content of what someone is saying

listening for appreciation

used to appreciate and enjoy the message

active listening

focusing attention on a speaker through participation in activities relevant to the message

ex: helping students retell simple stories, paraphrase important instructions, and ask appropriate questions when teacher/ other student is making a presentation.

ways to develop listening skills

critical listening, listening for appreciation, active listening.

metacognition

ability to reflect on and evaluate one's own thought process.

ex: understanding that taking notes can help one remember, people draw different conclusions from same evidence

metalinguistic knowledge

from of metacognition that pertains to the ability to reflect on and evaluate language.

ex: evaluate a spoken message on dimensions such as clarity, relevance, and effectiveness.

basal reader

collection of stories and other materials that is appropriate for students of a particular grade level.

thematic units

designed to teach several subjects through a sustained focus on a particular topic.

morphemes

smallest representation of meaning

ex: cars is made up of two morphemes: basic root word and the plural morpheme "s"

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