texes EC-6: competency 001 (oral language)
|imitation||learning strategy that young children use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, etc|
|phonology||study of the sound system of a language|
|phonemes||basic units of sound|
|morphology||set of rules for combining sounds into meaningful units|
|syntax||the structure of a phrase or sentence; entails the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language|
|semantics||the meanings of words and phrases|
|pragmatics||consists of rules for effective communication in different contexts; describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication.|
|connotation||the implied meaning of words and ideas|
|denotation||the literal meaning of words and ideas|
|communication disorders||Voice Disorders, Fluency Disorders, Articulation Problems, Language Processing Disorders|
|phonation||voice disorder; describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration. ex: hoarseness or extreme breathlessness|
|resonance||voice disorder; abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. ex: hyper-nasal sounds.|
|stuttering||fluency disorder; false starts or inability to produce intended sounds|
|cluttering||fluency disorder; occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.|
|lisping||articulation problem; when children produce the /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth|
|language processing disorders||generally caused by brain-based disturbance called aphasia|
|receptive aphasia|| creates problems with listening comprehension and retrieval of words from memory. |
ex: repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.
|expressive aphasia|| damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluency. |
ex: speech produce is very slow. the sentences produced are generally very short and contain only necessary features to convey message.
|global aphasia|| brain bases disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of language.|
ex: produce minimal speech and comprehension is very limited.
|language processing disorders||receptive, expressive, and global aphasia.|
|activities to promotes oral communication||dramatic play, language play, show and tell, puppet show, pair interview , presenting, reading to students, songs, rhymes, games, thinking out loud.|
|formal assessments of oral language development||peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT) and test of oral language development (TOLD)|
|receptive language|| ability to understand a message|
ex: sensitivity to phonemic distinctions in words, comprehension of word meanings, and awareness of pragmatic conventions.
|expressive language||the ability to express oneself in language--to produce words, to choose correct vocabulary and grammar, and to follow pragmatic conventions.|
|scaffolding||refers to the adults help children learn complex skills such as language; providing a structure in which the children can develop his/her language skills.|
|english language learner||children whose native language is not english and whose oral language skills are less advanced than their classmates.|
|bilingual education||academic content is provided in the student's native language at the same time that English language instruction is given|
|english-as-a-second-language (ESL)||placed in an English class with other English learners who speak a variety of different languages|
|language experience approach (LEA)|| instructional method that integrates oral and written language skills. |
ex: often focuses on shared experiences, such as a field trip or special event.
|textless books/wordless books|| help students connect spoken and printed language|
consist of sequences of pictures but no print.
|Asking young children to read textless books allows them to practice...what?||vocabulary and to apply merging appreciation of narrative.|
|dialogic reading||conversations between a teacher a teacher and students about a story that has just been read.|
|word walls||lists of words that students are currently learning in places that the entire class can see|
|help students connect spoken and printed language by?||textless books, dialogic reading, and word walls.|
|critical listening||understand and evaluate he content of what someone is saying|
|listening for appreciation||used to appreciate and enjoy the message|
|active listening|| focusing attention on a speaker through participation in activities relevant to the message|
ex: helping students retell simple stories, paraphrase important instructions, and ask appropriate questions when teacher/ other student is making a presentation.
|ways to develop listening skills||critical listening, listening for appreciation, active listening.|
|metacognition|| ability to reflect on and evaluate one's own thought process. |
ex: understanding that taking notes can help one remember, people draw different conclusions from same evidence
|metalinguistic knowledge|| from of metacognition that pertains to the ability to reflect on and evaluate language. |
ex: evaluate a spoken message on dimensions such as clarity, relevance, and effectiveness.
|basal reader||collection of stories and other materials that is appropriate for students of a particular grade level.|
|thematic units||designed to teach several subjects through a sustained focus on a particular topic.|
|morphemes|| smallest representation of meaning|
ex: cars is made up of two morphemes: basic root word and the plural morpheme "s"