learning strategy that young children use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, etc
study of the sound system of a language
basic units of sound
set of rules for combining sounds into meaningful units
the structure of a phrase or sentence; entails the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language
the meanings of words and phrases
consists of rules for effective communication in different contexts; describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication.
the implied meaning of words and ideas
the literal meaning of words and ideas
Voice Disorders, Fluency Disorders, Articulation Problems, Language Processing Disorders
voice disorder; describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration. ex: hoarseness or extreme breathlessness
voice disorder; abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. ex: hyper-nasal sounds.
fluency disorder; false starts or inability to produce intended sounds
fluency disorder; occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.
articulation problem; when children produce the /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth
language processing disorders
generally caused by brain-based disturbance called aphasia
creates problems with listening comprehension and retrieval of words from memory.
ex: repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.
damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluency.
ex: speech produce is very slow. the sentences produced are generally very short and contain only necessary features to convey message.
brain bases disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of language.
ex: produce minimal speech and comprehension is very limited.
language processing disorders
receptive, expressive, and global aphasia.
activities to promotes oral communication
dramatic play, language play, show and tell, puppet show, pair interview , presenting, reading to students, songs, rhymes, games, thinking out loud.
formal assessments of oral language development
peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT) and test of oral language development (TOLD)
ability to understand a message
ex: sensitivity to phonemic distinctions in words, comprehension of word meanings, and awareness of pragmatic conventions.
the ability to express oneself in language--to produce words, to choose correct vocabulary and grammar, and to follow pragmatic conventions.
refers to the adults help children learn complex skills such as language; providing a structure in which the children can develop his/her language skills.
english language learner
children whose native language is not english and whose oral language skills are less advanced than their classmates.
academic content is provided in the student's native language at the same time that English language instruction is given
placed in an English class with other English learners who speak a variety of different languages
language experience approach (LEA)
instructional method that integrates oral and written language skills.
ex: often focuses on shared experiences, such as a field trip or special event.
textless books/wordless books
help students connect spoken and printed language
consist of sequences of pictures but no print.
Asking young children to read textless books allows them to practice...what?
vocabulary and to apply merging appreciation of narrative.
conversations between a teacher a teacher and students about a story that has just been read.
lists of words that students are currently learning in places that the entire class can see
help students connect spoken and printed language by?
textless books, dialogic reading, and word walls.
understand and evaluate he content of what someone is saying
listening for appreciation
used to appreciate and enjoy the message
focusing attention on a speaker through participation in activities relevant to the message
ex: helping students retell simple stories, paraphrase important instructions, and ask appropriate questions when teacher/ other student is making a presentation.
ways to develop listening skills
critical listening, listening for appreciation, active listening.
ability to reflect on and evaluate one's own thought process.
ex: understanding that taking notes can help one remember, people draw different conclusions from same evidence
from of metacognition that pertains to the ability to reflect on and evaluate language.
ex: evaluate a spoken message on dimensions such as clarity, relevance, and effectiveness.
collection of stories and other materials that is appropriate for students of a particular grade level.
designed to teach several subjects through a sustained focus on a particular topic.
smallest representation of meaning
ex: cars is made up of two morphemes: basic root word and the plural morpheme "s"