The envelope of gases, aerosols, and other material that surrounds Earth and is held close by gravity.
Character of a Place
Places are parts of Earth's surface endowed with meaning by humans. Each place possesses a set of characteristics that help to distinguish it from other places like climate, landforms, language, or quality of life.
The production of manufactured goods in a market system; Industrial regions of the world are western and central Europe, east North America, Russia-Ukraine, and East Asia and all are linked and competing for commercial dominance in a world-wide economic system.
The realm of Earth that includes all plant and animal (including humans) life forms. It is divided into very large biomes or ecosystems made up of specific plants and animals.
decisions are made by a central governmental agency or authority. Communism is one example
Small-scale production of goods for sale in markets. It usually involves producing a good by hand or with low technology at home or in a small village cooperative.
occurs by innovation and diffusion. Groups undergo a process by adopting some of the characteristics of the dominant culture (acculturation). this is a response to a variety of human processes including migration and proximity to other culture groups
the process of disassociating cultures, or protecting a culture from other influences.
The process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space.
occurs when the ideas, habits, skills, arts, and institutions of one culture come in contact and interact with those of another culture.
The human world is composed of culture groups, each of which has its own way of life as reflected in the groups land use practices economic activities, organization and layout of settlements, attitudes toward the role of women, education systems, and observance of traditions.
places with similar features, like the Humid Sub-tropical Region or The Corn Belt. These regions may be defined by population, per capita income, ethnic background, crop production, population density or temperature, rainfall or growing season
Geographic Information System (GIS)
An integrated system of a computer, software, and procedures designed to support the collection, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of spatially referenced data about Earth's surface in order to solve geographic problems.
linked together by a flow of something. For example, the Chicago transit system is linked by the flow of area commuters. Some other examples of these regions include shopping areas focused on malls or areas served by branch banks
Global Trade Patterns
When one country needs a resource or product, and another country has it, the countries may establish a trading network. Routes are determined by geography, relations with other countries, and transportation technology.
climate, landforms, soils, hydrology, vegetations, and animal life.
can be thought of as an original idea or invention, or can be a change that takes place within a culture that results from ideas created within the culture group.
language, religion, political systems, economic systems, population distribution, and quality of life.
The water realm of the Earth; including water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, glaciers, and as vapor in the atmosphere.
the scenery of a place including the physical and human characteristics.
Agriculture in a _____ economy responds to the forces of the market and involves off-farm sales of goods. Farmers produce crops and other foodstuffs based on what the market demands.
air, land, and water, but anything humans value qualify as resources.
The uppermost portion of solid Earth It includes soil, land, and geologic formations.
economic decisions are determined by laws of supply and demand and the market. Profit is the driving force in a market economy.
Primary Economic Activities
those that use natural resources directly like fishing, forestry, agriculture, and mining.
reflect human feelings and attitudes about areas and are shared, subjective images of places. Dixie, Southern California, and the Upper Mid-West are spatial units although they have no precise borders.
Secondary Economic Activities
use raw materials to produce or manufacture something new and more valuable like steel, flour, iron, plywood, or power.
Tertiary Economic Activities
those that provide services, like doctors, teachers, dry cleaners, secretaries, store clerks, truck drivers or restaurant personnel.
include negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate from an area like the loss of a job, famine, war, overcrowding, or lack of professional opportunities.
a part of the Earth's surface that is alike or connected in some way. It is used as a tool to help organize the complexity of the Earth's surface.
Quaternary Economic Activities
those in which individuals process, administer, and disseminate information like education, government, information processing and research.
the positive attributes perceived to exist at the new location causing people to migrate like jobs, better climate, lower taxes, more room, or more professional opportunities.
goods and services are produced by a family for their personal consumption. There is little surplus and little exchange of goods.
The kind of agriculture practiced most widely around the world, especially in less developed economies. In this system, foods and other goods and services are produced by a family for their own consumption.
A continuous urban region including several cities; for example, North America's eastern coast.
Land at the cities edge that is a mix of urban and rural
Regions that are frequently at war like The Middle East or Kashmir and Jammu; and regions of frequent civil war, such as the Balkans, Angola, or Uganda.
Gross Domestic Product
The measure of the output of a countries goods and services calculated on personal consumption, government expenditures, private investment, inventory growth, and trade balance.
The mass movement of people from farms to cities; growth of city into surrounding countryside.
A narrow passage, such as a strait, through which shipping must pass. may be an area of congestion or obstruction, or an area dominated by the country of its location.
The process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world's markets and businesses. This process has speeded up dramatically in the last two decades as technological advances make it easier for people to travel, communicate, and do business internationally
A place of origin of a major culture; like Mesopotamia, The Nile Valley, The Indus Valley, or Mesoamerica