Earth Science Final Exam Practice (Chapters 1 through 5)

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Collection of test questions for final exam practice for ESCI 1101 (Physical Geography).

In physical geography the term "process" broadly refers to

a series of actions that can be measured and which produce a predictable end result.

The point in Earth's orbit where it is closest to the Sun is called

perihelion.

Here you will find the greatest range of temperatures over the course of the year

high latitude continental locations.

This type of map scale compares distances between cities.

Neither the Written (Verbal) Scale, the Representative Fraction, or the Graphic/Bar Scale compares distances between cities.

Where is the subsolar point when all latitudes above 66.5 degrees North experience 24 hours of darkness?

The Tropic of Capricorn.

The Earth is not a perfect sphere in shape.

True.

As the subsolar point is heading south after crossing the Equator, which hemisphere is receiving the greatest amount of sunlight?

Southern.

The atmosphere behaves as a fluid, much like water, with currents and eddies.

True.

Which of the following statements about remote sensing is NOT true?

The collected data is sent out to scientific users as false-colored images.

Geography is

an ancient discipline examining the spatial attributes of the Earth's surface and how they differ from one place to another.

Winter in the northern hemisphere occurs when the Earth is farthest from the Sun.

False.

Crops and fields typically reflect ______ percent of incoming solar radiation.

10 - 25%

The greenhouse effect is responsible for making Earth hospitable to life.

True.

Birds would be placed within this sphere.

Biosphere.

Spatial analysis is used by

physical, cultural, and historical geographers.

This region of the atmosphere is located from 90 km to 480 km up from the surface of the Earth.

Thermosphere.

The Earth's axial tilt always points in the same direction relative to the Sun.

False.

This is the altitude of the Mesosphere.

From 50 km to 90 km.

This is the upper layer of the atmosphere.

Thermosphere.

The minimum number of satellites you need to be in contact with in order for a GPS receiver to know your position on Earth is

3

Physical geography can be described as the spatial analysis of naturally occurring events or reactions that can be measured.

True.

You use pot-holders to remove things from an oven in order to stop which of the following processes?

Conduction.

The warmest part of the day occurs later in the day than solar noon.

True.

The Earth is subdivided into how many time zones?

24

A map is

A two-dimensional representation of a portion of the three-dimensional Earth; a generalized view of an area, as seen from above but reduced in size; and a tool used to depict spatial information and to analyze spatial relationships.

Lines of longitude

Run north and south, are called meridians, and converge at the North and South poles.

Physical geography contains the sub-fields of

Climatology, meteorology, geomorphology, hydrology, and soils.

When you are sitting by a campfire, the heat you feel on your body is due to which of the following?

Radiation.

A representative fraction is One Inch = 5280 Feet.

False.

This region of the atmosphere is located from 50 km to 90 km up from the surface of the Earth.

Mesosphere.

Without particulate matter there would be no clouds or rain.

True.

Remote sensing was brought about by

The development of high-speed cameras; the development of airplanes; the development of satellites; and the development of infrared film.

Winter in the northern hemisphere occurs

when the Earth is near perihelion.

Each time zone on Earth covers approximately ______ degrees of longitude.

15

Where, over the course of a year, would you expect to find mild to cold temperatures?

High latitude coastal locations.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) makes use of _____ satellites.

24

Snow and ice reflect _____ percent of incoming solar radiation.

80 - 95%

Geographers are analyzing data on where and when hurricanes strike, tornadoes form, flooding takes place, earthquakes happen, etc. This is because as the global population grows many people are moving into areas affected by these events. This falls into which of the following categories?

Natural Hazards.

The chemical form of ozone is

O3

Water vapor is one of the greenhouse gases.

True.

Gamma rays are tens of meters in length.

False.

The sky is blue because of the scattering of blue wavelengths of incoming solar radiation by particulate matter in the atmosphere.

True.

This sphere provides the habitat and nutrients for many life forms.

Biosphere.

How would you measure the height of Belk Tower on the UNCC campus using the tools in Google Earth?

Determine the differences in altitude between the top and bottom of the tower.

Which of the following about ozone depletion are true?

CFC molecules are very stable in the atmosphere, and gradually diffuse upward to the ozone layer; CFC molecules in the ozone layer absorb UV radiation, and break apart with one molecule being ClO (chlorine oxide); ClO molecules then release their O to a passing O in the ozone layer; The lone Cl atom then attaches to an O3 molecule, breaking it into O2 and ClO.

Of the total amount of energy the sun puts out, about how much does the Earth receive?

One half of one trillionth.

This region of the atmosphere is located from 0 km to 12 km up from the surface of the Earth.

Troposphere.

What is the most accurate statement about the Earth's spin and sunrise/sunset?

Because the Earth spins from west to east, the Sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west.

The Earth's axis of rotation makes an angle of ____ degrees with the plane of the ecliptic.

66.5 degrees.

The Earth's distance from the Sun (closer during perihelion and further during aphelion) is the main cause of the seasons.

False.

Summer in the northern hemisphere occurs when the Earth is farthest from the Sun.

True.

Radiation requires molecules to be in contact with one another.

False.

Geography is an academic discipline with numerous specialized sub-fields.

True.

Geographers are analyzing data on the levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere in the past to the present. This falls into which of the following categories?

Global Climate Change.

Shortwave radiation includes gamma rays, X-rays, and visible light.

True.

This explains why the length of time the Sun is in the sky changes over the course of a year, most notably at the higher latitudes.

Seasons and length of day.

Commercial jet liners routinely travel here.

From 12 km to to 50 km.

Humans can directly see the electromagnetic spectrum.

False.

The distance ratio that exists between features on a map and the real world is known as the legend.

False.

Large scale maps show a small geographic area in great detail.

True.

Where is the subsolar point when all latitudes above 66.5 degrees South receive 24 hours of daylight?

The Tropic of Capricorn.

The oblateness of the Earth occurs at the:

poles.

The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of:

Earth's directional tilt, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.

The solar constant is measured:

above the troposphere.

The key idea behind the scientific method is:

the testing of ideas through controlled observations and experiments.

The Earth's Equator is an example of:

a great circle.

Which are the two most abundant gases in the atmosphere?

Nitrogen and Oxygen.

Which of the following relationships is incorrect?

September equinox - subsolar point at 23.5 degrees S latitude.

If a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?

Positive.

Which of the following is false regarding sunspots?

They are brighter than the rest of the solar surface.

Which of the following is false?

A GIS model does not require use of a map.

The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is:

Shorter than that emitted by the Earth.

The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that:

Earth makes a complete rotation on its axis in 24 hours.

If the Earth warmed up, and more snow fell because of more water vapor in the atmosphere, and that snow then reduced the Earth's temperature, which increased snow cover, then the initial increase in snowfall would be _____ feedback, while the continued increase of snowfall would be ______ feedback.

negative; positive

The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Earth is:

infrared.

If City A is located west of City B, the time at City A is _______ than that at City B because the Earth rotates from _______ when viewed from above its North Pole.

earlier; west to east.

The isolation received at Earth's surface is:

greatest over low-latitude deserts with their cloudless skies.

The albedo of a surface is a measure of which of the following processes?

Reflection.

Which of the following is true of insolation?

It is the only energy input driving the Earth's atmospheric system; It consists of direct radiation; It consists of diffuse radiation.

Which of the following is NOT responsible for the urban heating effect?

The albedo of urban environments is substantially higher than that of natural landscapes.

Which two gases are primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect due to their ability to absorb infrared energy?

Water vapor and carbon dioxide.

Which of the following has the highest albedo?

Fresh snow.

Air pollution acts to ______ the albedo of cities and therefore _____ the urban heat island effect.

decreases; enhances

In the surface energy budget, the term -SW represents:

the albedo value of a surface.

As regards solar energy, mirrors are used to

generate steam.

A graph showing the relationship between insolation and air temperature through the course of the day shows

air temperature reaches a minimum at sunrise.

The single most important control on temperature is

latitude.

Air temperature is the measure of the presence of which of the following?

sensible heat

Because of the process known as _______ the sun appears above the horizon long _______ it has set.

refraction; after

Which of the following can serve as passive solar energy collectors?

Water containers; Concrete; Brick walls

On average, which of the following is true regarding the distribution of shortwave and longwave energy at Earth's surface by latitude?

The distribution shows an imbalance of net radiation from equator to poles.

Both City A and City B are located at the same latitude and the same amount of cloud cover. City A has a mean annual temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a temperature range of 22 degrees Celsius. City B has a mean average temperature of 26 degrees Celsius and a temperature range of 14 degrees Celsius. Which city is located in the interior of the continent?

City A

In general, as distance from the subsolar point increases, the average annual temperature insolation _______ and the average annual temperature ________.

decreases; decreases

Which of the following is true regarding locations at high elevations?

Higher elevations experience lower average temperatures during both night and day.

Energy that is reflected from the atmosphere

does NOT act to heat the atmosphere.

Earth's main energy inputs are

ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared radiation.

Which of the following statements is accurately associated with the Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere?

The Sun points directly at 23.5 degrees South.

Where is the subsolar point on March 21st?

The Equator.

Assuming that the position of the subsolar point, relative to latitude, is an indirect measure of temperature, which of the simulated tilts would result in the warmest summer temperatures at high latitudes?

40 degrees.

Which of the simulated tilts would result in the most consistent daylight length over the course of the year?

10 degrees.

Which one of the following most influences the position of the subsolar point?

Season.

Where would the Sun appear to be in the sky on one of the Equinoxes to an observer at the North Pole?

The horizon.

Which one of the following statements is correct about daylength at the Equator?

It is consistently about 12 hours long at the Equator all year long.

Where do you expect to find 24 hours of darkness during late December?

Above the Arctic Circle.

Why do the very high and very low latitudes both experience 12 hours of day length on the Equinoxes?

The Earth rotates at a slower speed at the high latitudes than it does at the low latitudes.

If you happened to live in Alpena, Michigan (or another city at that latitude), why would the Sun always arc across the southern sky?

Because the subsolar point of the Sun is always located to the South of Alpena, even during the Summer Solstice.

Why is the Sun in the northern sky relative to someone standing in Caracas on June 21st?

Because the subsolar point on June 21st is the Tropic of Cancer, which is north of Caracas.

Which of the 3 locations, Alpena, Michigan, Mazatlan, Mexico, or Caracas, Venezuela has the greatest seasonal range in length of day?

Alpena, Michigan.

Imagine that you're living at 50 degrees South latitude. Which one of the following statements is accurate assuming you lived at this latitude?

The Sun would always be in the northern sky.

Now, imagine what would happen if the Earth's axis were not tilted; in other words, if it were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic as it orbits the sun. If this geometric relationship existed, where would the subsolar point be on June 21st?

The Equator.

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