HuG Chapter 12 & 13

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AP HuG Dr. Myovich Chapter 12: The Political Ordering of Space Chapter 13: Human Impacts on Natural Systems

antecedent boundary

a boundary line established before the area in question is well populated

artifical boundary

a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude

autonomous nationalism

movement by a dissident minority intent to achieve partial or total independence of territory it occupies from the state within which it lies.

centrifugal force

In urban geography, economic and social forces are pushing households and business outward from central and inner city locations
In political geography, forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of the state

centripetal force

In urban geography, a force attracting establishments or activities to the city center
In political geography, forces tending to bind together the citizens of a state

compact state

A state whose territory is nearly circular

consequent (ethnographic) boundary

A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divides, such as a religion or language

core area

In economic geography, a "core reigon" the national or world districts of concentrated advanced technology
In political geography, the heartland or nuclear of a state, containing its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity

devolution

the transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory

electoral geography

The study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections

elongated state

A state whose territory is long and narrow

enclave

a small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction

ethnic cleansing

the killing or forcible relocation of less powerful minorities

European Union

an economic association established in 1957 by a number of western european countries to promote free trade among members; often called the Common Market

exclave

A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country

exclusive economic zone

As established in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it

fragmented state

A state whose territory contains isolated ports, separated and discontinuous

functional dispute

In political geography, a disagreement between neighboring neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration

geometric boundary

a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude

gerrymandering

To redraw voting district boundaries in such a way as to give one political party maximum electoral advantage and to reduce that of another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to achieve other nondemocratic objectives

irredentism

the policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state

nation

a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from stared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs

nationalism

a sense of unity binding the people of a state together, devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals

nation-state

a state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation

natural boundary

a boundary line based on recognizable physiogeographic features, such as mountains or rivers

perforated sate

a state whose territory is interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders

physical boundary

a boundary line based on recognizable physiogeographic features, such as mountains or rivers

political geography

a branch of human geography concerned with the spatial analysis of political phenomena

positional dispute

In political geography, disagreement about the actual location of a boundary

prorupt state

A state of basically compact form but with one or more narrow extensions of territory

regionalism

In political geography, group-frequently ethnic group-identification with a particular region if a state rather then with a state as a whole

relic boundary

a former boundary line that is still discernible and marked by some cultural landscape feature

resource dispute

In political geography, disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds

separatism

Desired reigonal autonomy expressed by a culturally distinctive group within a larger politically dominant culture

state

an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal foreign affairs

subnationalism

the feeling that one owes primary allegiance to a traditional group or nation rather than to the state

subsequent boundary

a boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that considers the cultural the cultural characteristics of the bounded area

superimposed boundary

a boundary line that is placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern

supranationalism

term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives

territorial dispute

In political geography, a disagreement between neighboring neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration

terrorism

systematic open and covert action employing fear and terror as a means of political coercion

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

a code of maritime laq approved by the United Nations int 1982 that authorizes

acid percipitation

created when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen change chemically as they dissolve in water vapor in the atmosphere and return to earth as acidic rain, snow, or fog

aquifer

a porous, water bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel below the ground level

biome

a major ecological community, including plants and animals, occupying an extensive earth areaq

biosphere

the thin film of air, water, and earth within which we live including the atmosphere, surrounding and subsurface waters, and the upper reaches of the earth's crust

desertification

Extension of desert - like landscapes as a result of overgrazing destruction of the forests or other human induced changes, usually in semiarid reigons

ecosystem

a population of organisms existing together in a small, relatively homogeneous area (pond, forest, small island), together with the energy, air, water, soil, and chemicals upon which it depends on

enviornment

surroundings; the totality of things that in any way may affect an organism including both physical and cultural conditions; a region characterized by a set of physical conditions

enviornmental pollution

the introduction into the biosphere of materials that because of their quantity, chemical nature, or temperature have a negative impact on the ecosystem or that cannot be readily despised of by natural recycling processes.

fallowing

the practice of allowing plowed or cultivated land to remain uncropped or only partially cropped for one or more growing seasons

global climate change

change in earth's climate system, whether natural or caused by humans

greenhouse affect

heating of the earths surface as short wave solar energy passes through the atmosphere which is transparent to it but opaque to reradiated long wave terrestrial energy; also, increasing the opacity of the atmosphere through addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases that trap heat

hazardous waste

discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material that poses a substantial threat to human health or to the environment when improperly disposed of or stored

hydrologic cycle

the natural system by which water is continuously circulated through the biosphere by evaporation, condensation, percipitation

icebox affect

the tendency for certain kinds of air pollutants to lower temperatures on earth by reflecting incoming sunlight back into space and thus preventing it from reaching the earth

IPAT equation

an equation relating the environmental impact of a society to the key factors of population, affluence, and technology

limiting factor principle

the distribution of an organism or the structure of an ecosystem can be explained by the control exerted by the single factor that is most deficient, that is that falls below the levels required

ozone

a gas molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen formed when diatomic oxygen is exposed to ultravio;et radiation. In the upper atmosphere it forms a normally continuous, thin layer that blocks ultraviolet light; in the lower atmosphere it constitutes a damaging component of photochemical smog

rotation

the annual alteration of crops that make differential demands on or contributions to soil fertility

soil

the complex mixture of loose material including minerals, organic and inorganic compounds, living organisms, air, and water, found at the earth's surface and capable of supporting plant life

soil erosion

the wearing away and removal of rock and soil particles from exposed surfaces by agents such as moving water, wind, or ice

terracing

the practice of planting crops on steep slopes that have been converted into a series of horizontal step like level plots

toxic waste

discarded chemical substances that can cause serious illness or death.

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